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Époques: Louis XV

  • Viger  -  Saint-Germain
    François Viger (circa 1708-1784)
    Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain (1719-1791)

    Important Gilt Bronze Rococo Wall Cartel with Matte and Burnished Finishing

    APF_Cartel031_02

    Case Attributed to Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain

    Paris, Louis XV period, circa 1745-1750

    Height98 Width59 Depth17

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Viger à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic numeral five-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. The plate is also signed and numbered “667”. The movement, which strikes the hours, half hours, and quarters, is housed in a magnificent gilt bronze rococo case that is very finely chased, pierced and gilt, with matte and burnished finishing. The clock is adorned overall with flowering branches, leaves, seeds, asymmetrical C-scrolls, pierced reserves, scrolls and acanthus leaf volutes, which stand out against a ground of bordeaux-colored material covered with latticework mounts centered by engraved, stylized flowers.

    The remarkable design of the present important wall cartel was inspired by the work of Parisian designers of the first half of the 18th century, which highlighted luxurious interiors entirely in the rococo style popular during the reign of Louis XV. Its composition, made up of sinuous curves embellished with C-scrolls and foliage, is echoed in the small number of extant contemporary cartels. Among them, one example is in the Royal Swedish Collection (illustrated in J. Böttiger, Konstsamlingarna a de Swenska Kungliga Slotten, Tome II, Stockholm, 1900). A second clock is illustrated in P. Heuer and K. Maurice, European Pendulum Clocks, Decorative Instruments of Measuring Time, Munich; 1988, p. 38, fig. 48. A third example, whose dial is signed “Viger”, is in the Historisches Museum in Basel (see Tardy, La pendule française des origines à nos jours, Paris, 1967, p. 188). Two further comparable examples, bearing the signature of the bronzier Saint-Germain, support our attribution of the present clock to that extraordinary craftsman: one is pictured in G. and A. Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises de Louis XIV à l’Empire, Editions Polistampa, Florence, 2013, p. 85; the second, formerly on the Parisian art market, is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age à nos jours, Paris, 1997, p. 96.

    François Viger (circa 1708 - 1784)

    An 18th century Parisian clockmaker. Exercising independently at first, he became a master in August 1744 and opened a workshop in the rue Saint-Denis. As Jean-Dominique Augarde aptly states: “the pieces made in his workshop are of exceptional quality”. (Les ouvriers du Temps, Genève, 1996, p. 405). Viger ordered his clock cases from the best bronziers and cabinetmakers of the day, collaborating with such fine artisans as Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain, Antoine Foullet, and Jean-Baptiste Osmond. His work may be found today in important museums and private collections worldwide, including the Basel Historisches Museum de Bâle, the Wallace Collection in London, the Louvre in Paris, the Hermitage in Saint Petersburg and the Liazenski Palace in Warsaw.



    Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain (1719 - 1791)

    He was probably the most renowned Parisian of the mid 18th century. Active as of 1742, he did become a master craftsman until July 1748. He became famous for his many clock and cartel cases, such as his Diana the Huntress (an example is in the Louvre Museum), the clock supported by two Chinamen (a similar example is in the Musée des Arts décoratifs in Lyon), as well as several clocks based on animal themes, including elephant and rhinoceros clocks (an example in the Louvre Museum). In the early 1760’s he played an important role in the renewal of the French decorative arts and the development of the Neo-classical style, an important example of which may be seen in his Genius of Denmark clock, made for Frederic V and based on a model by Augustin Pajou (1765, in the Amalienborg Palace, Copenhagen). Saint-Germain also made several clocks inspired by the theme of Learning, or Study, based on a model by Louis-Félix de La Rue (examples in the Louvre Museum, the Gulbenkian Foundation, Lisbon, and the Metropolitan Museum in New York). Along with his clock cases, Saint-Germain also made bronze furniture mounts, such as fire dogs, wall lights, and candelabra. His entire body of work bears witness to his remarkable skills as a chaser and bronzeworker, as well as to his extraordinary creativity. He retired in 1776.



    Causard  -  Caffieri
    Edme-Jean Causard (circa 1720-1780)
    Philippe Caffieri (1714-1774)

    Exceptional Gilt Bronze Wall Cartel

    Venus and Cupid” or “Day and Night

    Cartel041-03_HD_WEB

    Case Attributed to Philippe Caffieri

    Paris, Louis XV period, circa 1760

    Height118 Width64 Depth22

    Provenance:

    – Sold Paris, Maître Rheims, Galerie Charpentier, May 12, 1950, lot 125.

    – Almost certainly purchased at that sale by Alberto Bruni Tedeschi (1915-1996).

    – Sale of the Alberto Bruni Tedeschi collection for the benefit of the Virginio Bruni Tedeschi Foundation (Sotheby’s, London, March 21, 2007, lot 84).

     

    The round white enamel dial, signed, signed “Causard Her du Roy Suivt la Cour”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic five-minute intervals by means of two pierced and gilt bronze hands. The hour and half-hour striking movement is housed in a magnificent Rococo case with finely chased matte and burnished gilt bronze allegorical figures. The façade and sides are adorned with copper plaques that are cut out with flowering branches. The waisted case is adorned with C-scrolls, volutes, scrolling and branches with leaves and seeds. The clock is surmounted by a winged putto in his chariot drawn by doves, amongst clouds and sunrays. He symbolizes the Day or Daybreak. The lower portion, which terminates in acanthus leaves, is adorned with a group depicting Cupid who is about to cover the goddess Venus, who is shown lying on a drapery, with a veil; this is an allegory of the Night or Twilight.

    Created toward the middle of the 18th century, almost certainly by the Parisian bronze caster Philippe Caffieri, this large cartel was very successful among the influential Parisian collectors of the time. Today only a handful of identical models are known: one cartel by Ferdinand Berthoud is illustrated in the catalogue of the Exposition d’art français du XVIIIe siècle that was held in the Galerie Jamarin in Paris in 1916. A second example is in the Musée Carnavalet in Paris. A third clock, whose dial was probably modified, was in the Maurice Segoura collection (see P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 103, fig. C). Another, whose dial is signed “Cronier à Paris”, a gift of Mr. and Mrs. Richard C. Paine in 1950, is in the Museum of Fine Arts de Boston (illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 117, fig. 2.5.11). A fifth clock, which was at the time in the Baguès collection, is pictured in J. de Hillerin, Plaisir de France, styles de France, objets et collections de 1610 à 1920. One further such cartel, whose dial is signed “Martinot à Paris”, is in the Kunstindustrimuseet in Oslo (see Tardy, La pendule française, Ier Partie: De l’Horloge gothique à la Pendule Louis XV, Paris, 1975, p. 193).

    This model was also produced with certain variations: one such example, whose dial is signed “Guillaume Gilles”, surmounted by a group of three putti and featuring a group of Venus and Cupid in the lower portion that is identical to the one on the present cartel, is in the British royal collections; in 1957 it was given to Queen Elisabeth II by French President René Coty (Inv. RCIN 30413). A second cartel, identical to that clock, whose dial was signed “Bunon à Paris”, is illustrated in G. and A. Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises, De Louis XIV à l’Empire, Florence, 2013, p. 131. A third example, whose upper portion is decorated with three putti and whose lower portion features a group symbolizing the courtship of Jupiter and Juno, was formerly in the collection of Boni de Castellane; Jean-Dominique Augarde attributes it to the bronze caster Edme Roy (see Les Ouvriers du Temps, Le pendule à Paris de Louis XIV à Napoléon Ier, Geneva, 1996, p. 156, fig. 124).

    Edme-Jean Causard (circa 1720 - 1780)

    Edme-Jean Causard is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the Louis XV period, signed his clocks in the following manner: “Causard Horloger du Roy suivant la Cour”. During the early part of his career he was an “ouvrier libre”, becoming “Horloger Privilégié du Roi” around 1753 and opening a workshop in the rue Saint Honoré. Like most of the best Parisian clockmakers of the period, Causard sourced his clock cases from the finest cabinetmakers and bronze casters, calling on Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain, Nicolas Petit and the Osmonds. During the 18th century, his clocks were owned by influential people such as the Marshal de Duras, Blondel de Gagny and the Marquis de Langeac.



    Philippe Caffieri (1714 - 1774)

    Philippe Caffieri was no doubt the most important Parisian bronze caster of the late 18th century. The brother of sculptor Jean-Jacques Caffieri (1725-1792) and the son of Jacques Caffieri (1678-1755), “Sculpteur et ciseleur ordinaire du Roi”, in 1747 he went into partnership with his father. He became a master sculptor in January 1754 and a member of the Académie de Saint-Luc.

    Upon the death of his father the following year, he took over the family workshop in the rue Princesse, purchasing his brother’s share of the workshop’s rococo models. Several months later, as a master’s son, he became a master caster “en terre et sable”. Initially he continued in the rococo style his father had favored, but later developed new models in the neoclassical style. He worked on the first example of an antique-inspired piece of furniture that was commissioned by the wealthy financier Ange-Laurent Lalive de Jully. Throughout his career, Philippe Caffieri worked for the most important Parisian collectors of the time.



    In the same category
    Gudin  -  Dubois
    Jacques-Jérôme Gudin
    Adrien Dubois

    Rare Violet Wood Veneered and Gilt Bronze Wall Cartel with Pull Repeat and Bracket

    Cartel042-05_HD_WEB

    Case by Adrien Dubois

    Paris, Louis XV period, circa 1750

    The bracket bears the barely legible stamp “A DUBOIS”

    Cartel :
    Height58 Width28 Depth13
    Bracket :
    Height20.5 Width30.5 Depth14.5
    Maximum dimensions :
    Height78.5 Width30.5 Depth14.5

    The round copper dial with twenty-five enamel cartouches indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic five-minute intervals by means of two blued steel hands; its center is signed “Gudin à Paris”. The movement, also signed “Gudin à Paris” on the plate, is fitted in a waisted case with diamond-matched violet wood veneering, within frames of the same wood. The clock and bracket are elaborately adorned with Rococo bronze mounts that are finely chased and gilded. The clock is surmounted by a Chinaman holding an umbrella and is adorned with stylized shells, C-scrolls and volutes, a dragon with outstretched wings on the glazed doors, and feet decorated with cartouches, scrolls and volutes. The bracket is adorned with acanthus leaves and a large finial embellished with an asymmetrical Rococo cartouche.

    The unusual design of this magnificent cartel, particularly the Oriental figure at the top of the clock, is one of the most beautiful Parisian creations of the mid 18th century. Objets d’art whose décor was inspired by Chinese or Japanese motifs and figures are today called “Chinoiseries”. In addition, it bears the stamp of Adrien Dubois, a Parisian cabinetmaker who specialized in making clock and regulator cases in the mid 18th century. Today only a few similar cartels are known to exist. Among them, one example in “Boulle” metal marquetry, whose dial is signed Etienne Lenoir à Paris, is illustrated in R. Mühe and Horand M. Vogel, Horloges anciennes, Manuel des horloges de table, des horloges murales et des pendules de parquet européennes, Fribourg, 1978, p. 103, fig. 122. A second model is pictured in Tardy, La pendule française, Ier partie: De l’horloger gothique à la pendule Louis XV, Paris, p.162.

    Jacques-Jérôme Gudin

    The son of clockmaker Jacques Gudin, known as “Gudin the elder”, was one of the most important Parisian horologers of the reign of Louis XV. In 1750, after becoming a master clockmaker, he opened a workshop in the quai des orfèvres, which remained active from 1769 to 1784 (see Tardy, Dictionnaire des horlogers français, Paris, 1971). He quickly gained renown among influential Parisian collectors of the time and soon began working for Lazare Duvaux, the marchand-mercier-jeweler of Louis XV and his favorite the Marquise de Pompadour. In parallel, the clockmaker gained a wealthy private clientele; certain of his clocks are mentioned during the 18th century in the probate inventories of Louis, Prince de Bauffremont, the wife of Charles Jean-Baptiste Dutillet, Marquis de Villarceaux, and Anne-Nicolas-Robert de Caze, the former fermier-général of the king.



    Adrien Dubois

    Adrien Dubois became a master cabinetmaker on January 14, 1741.



    In the same category
    Guiot  -  Cressent
    André-Georges Guiot
    Charles Cressent (1685-1768)

    Exceptional Boulle Marquetry Rococo Wall Cartel and Bracket in Gilt Bronze and Brass on Tortoiseshell

    Cartel with Female Mask, Premier modèle

    Cartel039-03_BD_MAIL

    Case by Charles Cressent

    Paris, early Louis XV period, circa 1730

    Height129 Width47 Depth19

    Provenance:

    – Formerly, collection of the Marquis de D… sold Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, June 17, 1921, lot 91

    – Sold Paris, Maître, Galerie Charpentier, le March 24, 1955, lot 75

    – Private collection, Périgord (France)

     

    The round copper dial, adorned with delicately engraved motifs, is signed “Guiot à Paris” in a round enamel cartouche. It indicates the Roman numeral hours on twelve enamel cartouches and the five-minute intervals along its outermost border, by means of two polished steel hands. The waisted case is made of finely chased gilt bronze. The clock is surmounted by a lightly draped putto figure that is seated among the clouds and extends his arms to his right. He rests upon an arched capital that is embellished by a cabochon-centered interlace frieze that terminates in volutes and contains a pierced decoration with flower blossoms radiating outward from a large, stylized flower. The movement, also signed “Guiot à Paris”, is flanked by C-scrolls adorned with gadrooned friezes and flower and leaf swags, which extend downward to the four curved feet that are decorated with wide applied palm leaves, which rest upon quadrangular entablatures supported on spheres. Underneath the dial, a magnificent female mask whose tresses are tied under her chin, surmounts a three-lobed motif with a shell that emerges from a C-scroll decorated cartouche; it is surrounded by latticework motifs centered by flowers. The sides of the case are of Boulle metal marquetry and feature engraved brass motifs on a colored tortoiseshell ground.  The clock rests on a bracket that is also made of finely chased bronze and features rococo motifs including large asymmetric shells, leaves, C-scrolls, volutes, crouching winged dragons, and sunflowers. The bracket terminates with a shell motif; it is centered by a large rococo motif with a medallion from which a lion is about to spring.

    In the mid 1730s, Charles Cressent created a type of very elaborate cartel that became one of his most successful models. The design features palm feet adorned with flowers and a female mask with a shell headdress flanked by pierced latticework motifs. Alexandre Pradère, who has closely analyzed Cressent’s work, has called this style “premier modèle”. Later, the cabinetmaker-sculptor revised the style, working in a rococo manner that was called “second modèle”, which was adopted several decades later by Saint-Germain (see Charles Cressent, sculpteur, ébéniste du Régent, Dijon, 2003, p. 176-183). Here, we are concerned with the “premier modèle”, which is that of the present clock. It became a huge success among collectors of the time, and Cressent produced several variations of it, which were designed to be placed on brackets. Three main variations are recognized.

    The first type of bracket is centered by a mask of Boreas blowing on feathers. One example of this model is known, whose movement is signed “Etienne Lenoir”; it was formerly in the collection of Farmer-General Marin de la Haye, and is today in the Musée Condé in Chantilly (see Anne Forray-Carlier, Le mobilier du château de Chantilly, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2010, p. 49, catalogue n° 7). A second example was acquired at auction in 1975 by the Musée national du château de Versailles (illustrated in Pierre Verlet, Les bronzes dorés français du XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1999, p. 283, fig. 315). This might well be the clock that was delivered to the Château de Versailles in February 1745 by the clockmaker Jean-Baptiste Baillon for the chamber of the Infanta Maria Theresa Rafaela of Spain, the wife of the French Dauphin. The clock was described as follows in the Journal du Garde-meuble de la Couronne: “N°42. A lovely gilt bronze ormolu clock made by Jean-Baptiste Baillon, whose dial is of enamel and whose hands are gilt bronze, supported by two consoles accompanied by palms, in the center of which is a female mask: on the sides there are ornaments of mosaic and two flower bouquets: the summit is crowned by a Cupid holding a scythe in his hand: the bracket is also of gilt bronze, embellished with shells, flowers, feathers, two dragons and a mask of Boreas, the height is 4 pieds and the bracket is 14 pouces wide.” (Archives Nationales, Maison du Roi, Série O/1/3313, folio 172).

    The second type of bracket is less common; only three examples are known. The first of these, now lacking its movement, and featuring a bearded satyr mask, is in the Musée des arts décoratifs à Paris, Larcade bequest of 1938 (illustrated in Alexandre Pradère, Charles Cressent, sculpteur, ébéniste du Régent, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2003, p. 180, catalogue n° 202B). A second clock, which formerly belonged to the Groves Foundation, is in the Minneapolis Institute of Art (illustrated in J-D. Augarde, “Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain bronzier (1719-1791), Inédits sur sa vie et son œuvre”, in L’Estampille/L’Objet d’art, n°308, December 1996, p. 69, fig. 9).

    The third type, which features a lion that appears to emerge from stylized motifs, is the same model as the present clock, and appears to be the oldest, stylistically. Four examples of this type are known today, among which one is in the Musée des Arts décoratifs in Paris (see H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 79, fig. 1.12.6). A second is in the Musée du Louvre in Paris (see D. Alcouffe, A. Dion-Tenenbaum and G. Mabille, Les bronzes d’ameublement du Louvre, Dijon, p. 68, catalogue n° 29). A further version of this bracket, in which the lion is replaced by a rooster, is known (see T. Dell, “The gilt bronze cartel Clocks of Charles Cressent”, in Burlington Magazine, April 1967, p. 213, fig. 36).

    André-Georges Guiot

    André-Georges Guiot (also spelled Guyot) was one of the finest Parisian clockmakers of the Regency period and the early years of the reign of Louis XV. Little is known about his career; it is possible that he worked in Paris for only a short time before moving to the provinces. His work has, however, been very well documented, for he was close to cabinetmaker and sculptor Charles Cressent, for whom he produced many clock movements. Through Cressent’s intermediary Guyot took part in furnishing the homes of the greatest collectors of the early part of the 18th century; several clocks bearing his name were mentioned at the time as belonging to important Parisian connoisseurs. Among them are those described as being in the home of the widow of Olivier du Couedic de Kerdrain, contrôleur de l’Ordre royal de Saint-Louis, in that of Nicolas Judde de Grainville, Grand Maître des eaux et forêts de Soissons, and of Henry-Louis de Barberie de Saint-Contest, intendant de Limoges, as well as in the homes of Antoine-Gaspard Grimod de la Reynière and Charles Savalette de Magnanville.



    Charles Cressent (1685 - 1768)

    Charles Cressent is one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers of the 18th century, and probably the most famous furniture maker working in the Regence style, which inspired his furniture and sculpture throughout his career. The son of a sculptor to the king, he studied sculpture in Amiens, where his grandfather resided – his grandfather was himself a sculptor and furniture maker. He initially trained as a sculptor and became a member of the Académie de Saint Luc in 1714, presenting a piece in that category. He then settled in Paris and began to work for several of his colleagues, and married the widow of cabinetmaker Joseph Poitou, formerly the cabinetmaker to Duke Philippe d’Orléans, then the Regent. By dint of this marriage, he became head of the workshop and continued its activities so successfully that he, in turn, became the official supplier to the Regent, and upon the Regent’s death in 1723, his son Louis d’Orléans continued to give commissions, thus insuring Cressent’s continued prosperity during those years. His fame quickly spread beyond the kingdom’s frontiers, as several European princes and kings commissioned pieces from Cressent, among them King John V of Portugal and Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria. In France, he had a private clientele that included members of the aristocracy such as the Duke de Richelieu and important collectors, such as the influential Treasurer General of the Navy Marcellin de Selle. Throughout his career, Cressent created his own bronze mounts that were cast in his workshop, which was against the rules of the bronze casters’ guild, as did André-Charles Boulle. This gave his work a great deal of homogeneity and highlighted his extraordinary talents as a sculptor.



    Latz  -  Delorme
    Delorme
    Jean-Pierre Latz (circa 1691-1754)

    Exceptional Gilt Bronze, Brass, Brown Tortoiseshell, Boulle Marquetry Wall Cartel and Bracket

    “Time Unveiling Truth”

    Cartel040-03_HD_WEB

    “De Lorme”

    Case Attributed to Cabinetmaker Jean-Pierre Latz

    Paris, early Louis XV period, circa 1725

    Some of the bronze mounts bearing the “crowned C” punchmark, which marked objects containing copper that were made or sold between 1745 and 1749.

    Height172 Width71 Depth42

    Provenance:

    – Probably the piece described in February 1777 as being in the antichamber of banker Georges-Tobie de Thellusson’s mansion in Paris: “An antique clock bearing the name of De Lorme (or Delorme) à Paris with copper dial, enamel hours, in its case with marquetry bracket and iron crémaillère, valued at 120 livres”.

    – Formerly in the collection of Monsieur Hubert de Givenchy (1927-2018), Paris.

     

    The engraved copper dial with twenty-four enamel cartouches indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic five-minute intervals by means of two polished steel hands. The movement, signed “De Lorme à Paris”, is housed in a waisted case of Boulle “première partie” and “deuxième partie” metal marquetry, in brass and brown-stained tortoiseshell, featuring scroll, foliate, and floral motifs. The clock is elaborately embellished with finely chased gilt bronze mounts, including the winged putti surmounting it, a curved pediment adorned with a wide pierced shell, palmette and flower motifs, C-scrolls, interlace friezes centered with cabochons, leaf-decorated feet with children holding flower and leaf swags, and the façade decorated with an allegorical scene representing Time Unveiling Truth. The bracket is decorated with a cartouche, garlands, and espagnolette figures holding a candleholder with chased drip pan and nozzle in each hand. The lower portion of the bracket features a rococo motif of scrolls and flowers.

    The unusual design of this exceptional monumental wall cartel demonstrates the extraordinary skill attained by the finest Parisian artisans of the first third of the 18th century. The precision of the metal marquetry, the very finely chased gilt bronze mounts and the remarkable quality of the casting all suggest it was produced by the finest Parisian artisans. In his article on cabinetmaker Jean-Pierre Latz, Henry Hawley includes several cartels and clocks made by Latz, which are embellished by figures whose sculpture in the round is comparable to the work of contemporary sculptors. It is also interesting to note that Latz often added candelabra to his horological creations, something that was rarely done at the time and further supports our attribution.

    Today only a few comparable clocks, regulators, and cartels are known. Among them, a clock made by Etienne Lenoir is in the Lyon Musée des Arts décoratifs (see the exhibition catalogue Ô Temps! Suspends ton vol, Catalogue des pendules et horloges du Musée des Arts décoratifs de Lyon, Lyon, 2008, p. 52-53, catalogue n° 11). A second example, with a dial signed “Stollewerck”, is in Dresden Castle (illustrated in P. Heuer and K. Maurice, European Pendulum Clocks, Decorative Instruments of Measuring Time, Munich, 1988, p. 102, fig. 180). A third is in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London (pictured in Tardy, La pendule française, Ier Partie: De l’horloge gothique à la Pendule Louis XV, Paris, 1975, p. 114), and a fourth example, which relates to the work of Charles Cressent, is illustrated in G. and A. Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises, De Louis XIV à l’Empire, Florence, 2013, p. 125. One further clock, identical to the present one, but lacking its wall bracket, was offered at auction by Sotheby’s in Monaco on February 5, 1978, lot 122.

    Delorme

    The signature “De Lorme (or Delorme) à paris” could be that of several clockmakers of that name, active in Paris during the early decades of the 18th century. The most famous among them, Henry-Philippe Delorme (whose name is also spelled “De Lorme”), is mentioned as having a workshop in rue Darnetal in 1718, rue du Bourg l’Abbé in 1740 and rue Greneta from 1746 to 1749. A Juré of the Communauté des horlogers from 1738 to 1742, it seems likely that several clocks mentioned during the 18th century as belonging to important Parisian connoisseurs may be attributed to him, including clocks described in the probate inventory of the widow of Jean Dorigny, formerly officier de la Reine, and in that of the wife of Simon-Charles-Sébastien Bernard de Ballainvilliers, Baron de Ballainvilliers.



    Jean-Pierre Latz (circa 1691 - 1754)

    Jean-Pierre Latz was one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers of the reign of Louis XV. Originally from Cologne, he settled in Paris in the late 1710s and married Marie-Madeleine Seignat, the daughter of a building contractor. He quickly gained renown among important Parisian connoisseurs, and within a few years, could boast of a wealthy clientele both in France and abroad. Among his clients were King Frederick II of Prussia, the king of Poland, and Louise-Elizabeth, Duchess of Parma. Despite his great fame, Latz only stamped a small portion of his production, which remains identifiable due to the marquetry and chased gilt bronze mounts, which he obtained from the finest Parisian bronze casters of the day.



    In the same category

    Important Copper and Bronze Rocaille Stained Horn Engraved Marquetry Wall Cartel and Console

    Cartel_033-02

    Paris, Louis XV period, circa 1735-1740

    Height125 Width47 Depth25.5

    The chased copper dial is inlaid with twenty-five white enamel cartouches bearing the Roman numeral hours and the five-minute Arabic numeral intervals; the time is indicated by means of two polished steel or blued steel hands. The movement is housed in a case that is inlaid overall with polychrome marquetry, featuring flower bouquets and leaf garlands in tortoiseshell or stained and engraved horn against a plain copper ground. The cartel is elaborately decorated with finely chased gilt bronze mounts, featuring scrolling foliage, shells, volutes and flower garlands. It is surmounted by a winged leaf bouquet, while the lower portion terminates in a rocaille leaf motif. Below the dial, there is a rocaille motif in the style of Parisian ornamentalist Juste-Aurèle Meissonnier (1695-1750).

    The unusual design of the present bracket clock retains all the magnificence and monumentality of the important horological creations produced by André-Charles Boulle during the reign of Louis XIV. Its rocaille gilt bronze mounts are particularly elaborate and its chasing and gilding are of exceptionally fine quality. The waisted case is stylistically similar to the work of certain great Parisian cabinetmakers of the time, who specialized in making clock and regulator cases, among them François Goyer, Antoine Foullet and Balthazar Lieutaud.

    Today only a few similar wall cartel clocks are known. Among them, one example whose dial is signed “Gédéon Duval” is in the National Museum in Stockholm (see Tardy, La pendule française, Ier Partie: De l’Horloge gothique à la pendule Louis XV, Paris, 1975, p. 159). A second clock is in the Château de Versailles (illustrated in M. and Y. Gay, “Horlogerie royale au Château de Versailles”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des collectionneurs et amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne et d’Art, Spring 1997, n° 78, p. 23, fig. 33). A third example, with a movement by Bunon, is illustrated in J-D. Augarde, Les ouvriers du Temps, La pendule à Paris de Louis XIV à Napoléon Ier, p. 119, fig. 80. A fourth cartel, by Etienne Baillon, was in the collection of the Hessian princes in the Fasanerie Castle in Fulda (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue Gehäuse der Zeit, Uhren aus fünf Jahrhunderten im Besitz der Hessischen Hausstiftung, 2002, p. 47, catalogue n° 12). A further example, whose dial is signed “Lomet à Paris”, is in the Poldi-Pezzoli Museum in Milan (see R. Mühe and Horand M. Vogel, Horloges anciennes, Manuel des horloges de table, des horloges murales et des pendules de parquet européennes, Office du livre, Fribourg, 1978, p. 98, fig. 112). One further similar cartel, now lacking its bracket, which illustrates the fable of the fox and the stork, is in the Royal Spanish Collection (see J. Ramon Colon de Carvajal, Catalogo de Relojes del Patrimonio nacional, Madrid, 1987, p. 28, catalogue n° 9).

    Gaudron
    Gaudron

    Important Tortoiseshell, Stained Horn and Engraved Mother-of-Pearl Marquetry Wall Cartel and Console, on a Chased and Gilt Rocaille Copper and Bronze Ground

    Cartel_034-01_HD_PRESSE

    “Gaudron”

    Paris, early Louis XV period, circa 1730

    Height160 Width56 Depth31

    The chased copper dial features twenty-four white enamel cartouches that indicate the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic numeral five-minute intervals, by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. The movement, signed “Gaudron à Paris”, is housed in a case that is inlaid overall with marquetry, featuring tortoiseshell, colored horn, or engraved mother-of-pearl flower and leaf garlands against a plain copper ground. The whole is elaborately adorned with finely chased gilt bronze mounts representing acanthus scrolls, shells, and C-scrolls, terminating in scrolls or flower garlands. The cartel is surmounted by a bouquet of leafy scrolls; the lower portion terminates in a wide leaf motif that is set against a pierced ground. Beneath the dial, two doves perch within a trellised cartouche.

    The unusual design of the present bracket clock retains all the magnificence and monumentality of the important horological creations produced by André-Charles Boulle during the reign of Louis XIV. Its rocaille gilt bronze mounts are particularly elaborate and its chasing and gilding are of exceptionally fine quality. The waisted case is stylistically similar to the work of certain great Parisian cabinetmakers of the time, who specialized in making clock and regulator cases, among them François Goyer, Antoine Foullet and Balthazar Lieutaud.

    Today only a few similar wall cartel clocks are known. Among them, one example whose dial is signed “Gédéon Duval” is in the National Museum in Stockholm (see Tardy, La pendule française, Ier Partie: De l’Horloge gothique à la pendule Louis XV, Paris, 1975, p. 159). A second clock is in the Château de Versailles (illustrated in M. and Y. Gay, “Horlogerie royale au Château de Versailles”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des collectionneurs et amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne et d’Art, Spring 1997, n° 78, p. 23, fig. 33). A third example, with a movement by Bunon, is illustrated in J-D. Augarde, Les ouvriers du Temps, La pendule à Paris de Louis XIV à Napoléon Ier, p. 119, fig. 80. A fourth cartel, by Etienne Baillon, was in the collection of the Hessian princes in the Fasanerie Castle in Fulda (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue Gehäuse der Zeit, Uhren aus fünf Jahrhunderten im Besitz der Hessischen Hausstiftung, 2002, p. 47, catalogue n° 12). One further similar cartel, now lacking its bracket, which illustrates the fable of the fox and the stork, is in the Royal Spanish Collection (see J. Ramon Colon de Carvajal, Catalogo de Relojes del Patrimonio nacional, Madrid, 1987, p. 28, catalogue n° 9).

    Given the date of the present clock, this signature refers to the partnership between Pierre and Antoine II Gaudron, the sons of the clockmaker Antoine Gaudron, who took over their father’s workshop after his death and continued to run it until approximately 1730.

    Gaudron

    One of the most important Parisian horological workshops, active from the second half of the 17th century to the middle of the following century. Founded circa 1660 by Antoine I Gaudron (circa 1640-1714), the workshop rapidly grew, and Antoine I went into partnership with his two sons, Antoine II Gaudron de Sainte-Marthe (1675-1748) and Pierre Gaudron (circa 1677-1745), both clockmakers as well, who were awarded the prestigious titles of, respectively, “Conseiller, Secrétaire du Roi, Maison et Couronne de France près de la Chancellerie du Parlement de Metz” and “Horloger Ordinaire du duc d’Orléans”. After the death of their father, the two brothers worked together from 1710 to 1730. The workshop became famous for its work with André-Charles Boulle, for whom the Gaudrons produced magnificent movements throughout the cabinetmaker-sculptor’s career.



    In the same category
    Furet  -  Cressent
    André Furet
    Charles Cressent (1685-1768)

    Exceptional Gilt Bronze Wall Cartel with Bracket

    “Aurora or The Break of Day”

    Cartel032_01

    Case attributed to Charles Cressent

    Paris, Louis XV period, circa 1740-1745

    Height92.5 Width36 Depth22

    The round gilt copper dial, signed “André Furet à Paris”, features twelve enamelled cartouches for the Roman hours and the Arabic minutes and a central enamelled plaque; the pierced hands are made of gilt brass. The finely chased and gilt bronze rocaille case with bracket is adorned with scrolling foliage and flowers; the bracket features a Boulle-style satyr’s mask with feathered headdress. The cartel’s upper portion is decorated en suite, with asymmetrical shells, scrolls, branches, and palmettes. Beneath the dial an eagle or phoenix spreads its wings. The clock is surmounted by a lightly draped winged putto who lifts a fringed drapery to reveal a solar mask symbolising Aurora or the Break of Day.

    This magnificent and elaborate wall cartel may be attributed to Charles Cressent, one of the most important Parisian artisans of the early 18th Century. A bronze caster as well as a furniture maker, he was one of the most influential artistic personalities of the Regency and Louis XV periods. Throughout his career his spectacular and often unique pieces were specially commissioned by contemporary connoisseurs who appreciated his keen aesthetic sense.

    To date no other identical cartel has been identified, which suggests that the present piece was very likely created on special order. While its treatment is more strongly influenced by the rocaille style, it is reminiscent of a clock known as the “Mask of Boreas”, made by Cressent circa 1730, which shows Boreas blowing on feathers. One such clock was delivered to the Dauphine’s chambers in Versailles (see A. Pradère, Charles Cressent, sculpteur, ébéniste du Régent, Dijon, 2003, p. 296); another wall cartel by Cressent, surmounted by a similar winged child, is in the Condé Museum in the Château of Chantilly (illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Munich, 1986, Band I, p. 78, fig.1.12.5).

    André Furet

    André Furet became a master horologist in May 1691.



    Charles Cressent (1685 - 1768)

    Charles Cressent is one of the most important Parisian cabinetmakers of the 18th century, and probably the most famous furniture maker working in the Regence style, which inspired his furniture and sculpture throughout his career. The son of a sculptor to the king, he studied sculpture in Amiens, where his grandfather resided – his grandfather was himself a sculptor and furniture maker. He initially trained as a sculptor and became a member of the Académie de Saint Luc in 1714, presenting a piece in that category. He then settled in Paris and began to work for several of his colleagues, and married the widow of cabinetmaker Joseph Poitou, formerly the cabinetmaker to Duke Philippe d’Orléans, then the Regent. By dint of this marriage, he became head of the workshop and continued its activities so successfully that he, in turn, became the official supplier to the Regent, and upon the Regent’s death in 1723, his son Louis d’Orléans continued to give commissions, thus insuring Cressent’s continued prosperity during those years. His fame quickly spread beyond the kingdom’s frontiers, as several European princes and kings commissioned pieces from Cressent, among them King John V of Portugal and Elector Charles Albert of Bavaria. In France, he had a private clientele that included members of the aristocracy such as the Duke de Richelieu and important collectors, such as the influential Treasurer General of the Navy Marcellin de Selle. Throughout his career, Cressent created his own bronze mounts that were cast in his workshop, which was against the rules of the bronze casters’ guild, as did André-Charles Boulle. This gave his work a great deal of homogeneity and highlighted his extraordinary talents as a sculptor.