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  • Dubuc  -  Galle
    Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel Dubuc (?-before 1820)
    Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Rare Gilt Bronze and Green Marble Mantel Clock

    “Jean de La Fontaine” or “Homage to Poetic Genius”

    Pendule411-05_HD_WEB

    “Dubuc le Jeune”

    The Case Attributed to Claude Galle

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805-1810

    Height57.5 Width24.7 Depth17

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Dubuc Le Jeune”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and Arabic numeral fifteen-minute intervals, and date, by means of three hands, two of which are made of pierced gilt bronze, while the third is made of blued steel. The hour and half hour striking movement is housed in a beautiful neoclassical case whose green marble panels are elaborately decorated with applied gilt bronze motifs relating to the fables of Jean de La Fontaine. Surmounting the clock is a scene from the fable of The Fox and the Stork, while the sides feature scenes from The Hare and the Tortoise and The Two Roosters. Flanking the dial are two figures of Fame playing the Trumpet with motifs inspired by The Eagle and the Owl. A framed reserve depicts the poet writing by the light of an oil lamp. On the sides of the case are The Crow and the Fox and The Fox and the Goat. The quadrangular base, which is adorned with a frieze of alternating leaves and grapes, has sides that are decorated with scenes from The Wolf and the Lamb and The Dog with his Master’s Dinner. The façade features a scene from The Two Goats. The clock is raised upon four flattened ball feet.

    This clock is a remarkable homage to the work of Jean de La Fontaine (1621-1695), who wrote the famous Fables (published in three volumes from 1668 to 1694) during the reign of Louis XIV. These moralistic tales with animal protagonists became extraordinarily popular as of their publication in the 17th century; they remain so to this day. The remarkable design and the excellent quality of the present clock’s chasing and gilding allow it to be attributed to the bronzier Claude Galle (1759-1815), who was one of the most important Parisian bronze casters of the period. Very few identical clocks are known today. One example, which is also signed Dubuc le Jeune, was formerly in the collection of Marc Revillon d’Apreval (illustrated in Tardy, La pendule française, 2ème Partie : Du Louis XVI à nos jours, Paris, 1975, p. 386, fig. 2. See also E. Niehüser, Die französische Bronzeuhr, Eine Typologie der figürlichen Darstellungen, Editions Callwey, Munich, 1997, p. 245, fig. 963).

    Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel Dubuc (? - before 1820)

    Jean-Baptiste-Gabriel Dubuc, who signed “Dubuc le jeune”, was one of the most important Parisian horologists of the Consulate and Empire periods. His workshop, located in the rue des Gravilliers from 1800 to 1817, was very active, as can be seen from the probate inventories of important figures of the early 19th century. They mention the work of Dubuc le jeune as being found in the homes of influential aristocrats such as Charles-Marie-Philippe Huchet de la Bédoyère and Mlle de Clermont-Montoison, the widow of the Marquis de la Guiche, as well as several other dignitaries of the period. They were part of the collection of Senator Henry Fargues and that of André Masséna, the Prince of Essling and Duke de Rivoli.



    Claude Galle (1759 - 1815)

    One of the foremost bronziers and fondeur-ciseleurs of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods, Claude Galle was born at Villepreux near Versailles. He served his apprenticeship in Paris under the fondeur Pierre Foy, and in 1784 married Foy’s daughter. In 1786 he became a maitre-fondeur. After the death of  his father-in-law in 1788, Galle took over his workshop, soon turning it into one the finest, and employing approximately 400 craftsmen. Galle moved to Quai de la Monnaie (later Quai de l’Unité), and then in 1805 to 60 Rue Vivienne.

    The Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, under the direction of sculptor Jean Hauré from 1786-88, entrusted him with many commissions. Galle collaborated with many excellent artisans, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, and furnished the majority of the furnishing bronzes for the Château de Fontainebleau during the Empire. He received many other Imperial commissions, among them light fittings, figural clock cases, and vases for the palaces of Saint-Cloud, the Trianons, the Tuileries, Compiègne, and Rambouillet. He supplied several Italian palaces, such as Monte Cavallo, Rome and Stupinigi near Turin.

    In spite of his success, and due in part to his generous and lavish lifestyle, as well as to the failure of certain of his clients (such as the Prince Joseph Bonaparte) to pay what they owed, Galle often found himself in financial difficulty. Galle’s business was continued by his son after his death by his son, Gérard-Jean Galle (1788-1846). Today his work may be found in the world’s most important museums and collections, those mentioned above, as well as the Musée National du Château de Malmaison, the Musée Marmottan in Paris, the Museo de Reloges at Jerez de la Frontera, the Residenz in Munich, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.



    Choiselat-Gallien

    Rare Gilt and Patinated Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The Stretcher Bearers”

    Pendule323-03_BD_MAIL

    “L. Grognot à Paris”

    The Case Attributed to Parisian Bronzier Louis-Isidore Choiselat, known as Choiselat-Gallien (1784-1853)

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height47 Width33.5 Depth10.5

    The round white enamel dial, signed “L. Grognot à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic fifteen minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands that are fixed to the center of the dial in the middle of a gold and azure colored flower. The hour and half-hour striking movement is housed in a drum case that is decorated with vines and is attached to a palanquin born on stretchers that rest on the shoulders of two finely sculpted young black men with enamel eyes, who are wearing earrings and feather loincloths. Surmounting the clock, on a plain terrace, are two young people sitting on a log. A dog rests his paws on the right knee of a young man who is talking with a young woman who turns toward him. The group depicts Paul and Virginie, the heroes of the novel by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. The clock is supported by a tall quadrangular base with rounded corners, whose façade is adorned with applied motifs representing two lemon trees and vines that flank a low relief, semi-circular scene depicting the shipwreck of the Saint-Géran, one of the most important episodes of Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s novel. The clock stands on four flattened ball feet that are embellished with mille-raie friezes.

    In the latter part of the 18th century, under the influence of the philosophical writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau, who exalted the virtues of a return to Nature through the myth of the “noble savage”, exoticism became extremely fashionable; this fashion was amplified by contemporary literature. The great success of  “Paul et Virginie” by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre in 1788, a latter-day echo of the well-known “Robinson Crusoe” by Daniel Defoe, Marmontel’s novel “Les Incas”, which was published during the American Revolutionary War, and Chateaubriand’s “Atala”, published in 1801, profoundly changed Europeans’ vision of other civilizations, creating a strong romantic nostalgia for a longed-for Pagan paradise, which would be transcended by Christianity. As often occurred in the French decorative arts, this change manifested itself in certain artistic creations, particularly in the fields of horology and lighting. The present clock was created within that context. Its model, known as “The Stretcher Bearers”, is one of the rarest types of  “au nègre” clocks.

    Only a handful of similar clocks are known to exist; these present several variations. One example, which is surmounted by a monkey, is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age à nos jours, Paris, 1997, p. 344. A second clock, of the same model as the present example, was made by the bronzier Louis-Isidore Choiselat, known as Choiselat-Gallien; it is pictured in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 379, fig. 5.15.20. It forms the basis for our attribution of the present clock to Choiselat, an important Parisian bronzier of the Empire period. Two other clocks are known to be identical to the present one; the first is in the well-known horological collections of the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (see the exhibition catalogue “De Noir et d’Or, Pendules ‘au bon sauvage’”, Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels, 1993). The second clock, formerly in the Renoncourt collection, is illustrated in S. Chadenet, Les styles Empire et Restauration, Editions Baschet et Cie, Paris, p. 177, fig. 1.

    Levol  -  Thomire
    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757-1843)

    Important and Rare Matte and Burnished and Patinated Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock based on the Novel “Paul et Virginie”

    “The Triumph of Virtue and Innocence”

    Pendule328-03_BD_MAIL

    “Levol à Paris”

    The Case Attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire

    Paris, Consulate period, circa 1800

    Height66 Width65.3 Depth15.8

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Levol à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. It is housed in a magnificent neoclassical case featuring finely sculpted and chased figures made of patinated bronze and gilt bronze with matte and burnished finishing. The hour and half-hour striking movement is housed in a drum case whose bezel is adorned with bead friezes and alternating water leaf and reed friezes, surmounting a drapery with delicate rope fringe decorated with a latticework band. That case supports a magnificent sculptural group depicting two figures seated side by side: a young man and a young woman, the latter holding in her left hand a drapery that floats over their heads. This refers to an episode from the novel “Paul et Virginie” in which Virginie, having been caught in a sudden shower, uses a part of her dress to shield herself from the rain, raising it above her head and thereby also protecting Paul, who was with her. The figures’ attitudes and their way of looking at each other betray great affection. The group rests on a palanquin with stretchers in imitation bamboo, which are carried by two finely sculpted black men dressed in loincloths with a burnished and matte border. On the terrace stands a dog that raises its right front foot. The quadrangular base with slightly protruding corners is decorated with applied palm tree motifs; the façade is adorned with a reserve panel depicting a scene that takes place within a landscape, which relates to the adolescence of the two young people. The clock is raised upon four feet that are adorned with leaf friezes.

    Black figures were rarely used in French and European decorative horology before the late 18th century. It was not until the end of the Ancien Régime – precisely, the final decade of the 18th century and the early years of the following one – that the first clocks called “au nègre” or “au sauvage” appeared. That fashion resulted from a specific social and romantic context. In the late 18th century, writings such as those of Jean-Jacques Rousseau exalted the moral virtues of a return to nature, through the idea of the “noble savage”. The interest in exoticism was encouraged by contemporary literature. The great success of  “Paul et Virginie”, written by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre in 1788, an echo of the famous “Robinson Crusoe” by Daniel Defoe, the novel “Les Incas” by Marmontel, which had been published during the American Revolution, and “Atala” written by Chateaubriand in 1801, profoundly changed Europeans’ attitudes to other civilizations, plunging the Old World into a current of romantic nostalgia linked to the idea of a quest for a Pagan paradise, which would be given new life by Christianity. As has often been the case in the French decorative arts, these new ideas manifested themselves in artistic creations, often in the fields of horology and lighting. The present clock was created within that particular context. Its particularly elaborate design and the exceptional quality of its chasing and gilding, and the patina of the two young black men, are evidence that the bronzier was one of the finest then working in Paris; it must therefore be attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire.

    The composition was inspired by a less elaborate horological model depicting a sculptural group in which Paul and Virginie are carried on a stretcher held by two young black women. One such clock is in the Musée Duesberg in Mons (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue “De Noir et d’Or, Pendules ‘au bon sauvage’”, Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels, 1993). A second example is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age à nos jours, Paris, 1997, p. 344. One further such clock is illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 379, fig. 5.15.20; that clock has been attributed to the Parisian bronzier Louis-Isidore Choiselat, known as Choiselat-Gallien (1784-1853). One of the finest bronze casters in Paris, Choiselat was a rival of Pierre-Philippe Thomire.

    Contemporary with the “aux porteuses” clocks, “aux porteurs noirs” clocks were much more elaborate and spectacular, due to their much larger size, as well as to their very unusual and perfectly balanced composition and the exceptional quality of their chasing and gilding. This model is also extremely rare; among the very small number of identical examples known, one that is attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire is today in the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (illustrated in Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Brussels, 2004, p. 66). Tradition has it that the clock in the Musée Duesberg was ordered from Thomire in 1802 by the future Emperor Napoleon I, who intended to give it to Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Napoleon, who admired the writer’s work, had particularly liked his novel “Paul et Virginie”.

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757 - 1843)

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire was the most important Parisian bronzier of the last quarter of the 18th century and the first decades of the following century. Early on in his career he worked for Pierre Gouthière, ciseleur-fondeur du roi, and toward the mid-1770’s began working with Louis Prieur. He later became one of the bronziers attached to the Manufacture Royale de Sèvres, creating the bronze mounts for most of the important creations of the day. After the Revolution, he purchased the stock of Martin-Eloi Lignereux, thus becoming the most important suppliers of furniture bronzes for châteaux and Imperial Palaces. In addition, he worked for a wealthy private clientele, both French and foreign, including several of Napoleon’s Marshals. Thomire retired in 1823.



    In the same category
    Thomire
    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757-1843)

    Important Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The Music Lesson” or “Homage to Joséphine”

    Pendule263-06_BD_MAIL

    “Collas à Paris”

    Attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire

    Paris, early Empire period, circa 1805

    Height53 Width54 Depth16

    The round enamel dial signed “Collas à Paris” indicates the Roman numeral hours and the fifteen-minute graduations. The case is made of finely chased, gilt and patinated bronze. The movement is housed in an elaborately decorated drum case upon which is seated a fine female figure who is dressed in antique robes and plays the harp. Her sheet music is placed on a four-legged gueridon; she looks behind her towards a winged putto who is wearing a quiver of arrows slung across his chest and holds a parchment with the words “Bouton de rose” (rosebud). His bow and a flaming torch are placed before him on a stool with lions’ feet. The plinth, with elaborately decorated reserves, is set upon a square green marble base adorned with applied motifs: ribbon-tied garlands, lyres flanked by griffons and masks within pierced medallions adorned with stylised palmettes. The clock is raised upon six toupie feet that are decorated with foliage and interlace motifs centered by pearls; the plinth has flattened ball feet.

    This clock’s unusual design was inspired by a poem entitled “Bouton de rose”, by Constance-Marie de Théis, Princess de Salm-Dyck (1767-1845). Published in 1785 in the Almanach des Grâces the poem became famous during the latter part of the 18th century, when it was set to music by the composer Louis-Barthélémy Pradher (1782-1843). The popular singer Pierre-Jean Garat (1762-1823) sang it in fashionable Salons, dedicating it to the beauty of Josephine, the wife of the future Emperor Napoleon. The present clock’s exceptional chasing and gilding allow us to attribute it to the most talented Parisian bronze caster of the period, Pierre-Philippe Thomire.

    Only a few identical clocks are known: one example, whose dial is signed  “Dubuc le jeune”, is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen-Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 388; a second clock appears in Tardy, La pendule française, 2ème Partie: du Louis XVI à nos jours, Paris, 1975, p. 401; a further clock, also attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire, is in the Musée François Duesberg, the famous horological museum in Mons (illustrated in Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Bruxelles, 2004, p. 40).

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757 - 1843)

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire was the most important Parisian bronzier of the last quarter of the 18th century and the first decades of the following century. Early on in his career he worked for Pierre Gouthière, ciseleur-fondeur du roi, and toward the mid-1770’s began working with Louis Prieur. He later became one of the bronziers attached to the Manufacture Royale de Sèvres, creating the bronze mounts for most of the important creations of the day. After the Revolution, he purchased the stock of Martin-Eloi Lignereux, thus becoming the most important suppliers of furniture bronzes for châteaux and Imperial Palaces. In addition, he worked for a wealthy private clientele, both French and foreign, including several of Napoleon’s Marshals. Thomire retired in 1823.



    Leroy
    Gabriel Leroy

    Rare Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height47.5 Width29 Depth16.5

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Gabriel Leroy/Rue du Temple N° 115 à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and Arabic fifteen-minute intervals by means of two blued steel Breguet hands. The case is made of finely chased gilt bronze with matte and burnished finishing. The bezel is adorned with a waterleaf frieze. The movement is housed in a case with engaged columns adorned with lions’ heads from which water issues, falling into receptacles placed on low pilasters with applied decorative motifs; the columns have palmette-decorated capitals. The façade is decorated with a swan with outstretched wings that rests on C scrolls, palmettes and rosettes. The rounded cornice is adorned with roof edge ornaments alternating with stylized palmettes and shells. The clock is surmounted by a gadrooned basin that supports two addorsed dolphins with intertwining tails. On the terrace are two children. The young girl is sitting in a sled with applied marine horses; she points the way with her right hand as she turns toward the other child, a young boy. Both children are dressed in the fashion of the 19th century. The rectangular base, with a sloping entablature, is supported by a molded plinth decorated with applied motifs of a trident, oars, ewers, shells, and reeds; it is itself supported on four knurled toupie feet.

    This rare clock, with its magnificent chasing and gilding, is based on an unusual theme that is probably based on the novel Paul et Virginie by Jacques-Henri Bernardin de Saint-Pierre. Published in 1788, it rapidly became very popular. The motif of two children playing together might correspond to the period when Paul and Virginie, who had grown up together as brother and sister on an isolated island far from civilization, led a life that was simple and virtuous and close to nature. The clockmaker who made the movement, Gabriel Leroy, was very probably a member of the horological dynasty of the same name that was active in Paris from the mid 18th century until the early decades of the following century. His workshop is mentioned at 115, rue du Temple from 1802 to 1822. During the Empire period he appears to have gone into partnership with his colleague Lemazurier (see Tardy, Dictionnaire des horlogers français, Paris, 1971, p. 405). A gilt copper clock by this clockmaker, “surmounted by a chariot drawn by butterflies”, was valued at 300 francs in 1817 in the probate inventory of Charles-Etienne Lacouture.

    Gabriel Leroy

    Gabriel Leroy was no doubt a member of the famous clockmaking dynasty active in Paris from the mid-18th century to the early décades of the following century; he is mentioned at 115, rue du Temple from 1802 to 1822 (see Tardy, Dictionnaire des horlogers français, Paris, 1971, p. 405).



    In the same category
    Amant
    Jean-Louis Amant

    Rare Gilt and Polychrome Bronze “Au Déserteur” Mantel Clock

    Pendule192_05

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1775

    Height50 Width34 Depth21.5

    The round enamel dial, signed “Amant à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic numeral five-minute intervals and date by means of three hands, two of which are set with paste stones; the third is made of blued steel. The architectural case is made of very finely chased gilt and polychrome bronze. The upper portion of the case, featuring military motifs such as banners, plumed helmets, swords, axes, and shields, is supported by a building with an arched façade with fluted pilasters and dungeons in the background. On a terrace, engraved in imitation of paving stones, and surrounded by pillars linked by chains, a young man kneels while bidding goodbye to a despondent young woman. Behind them, four soldiers are waiting to execute the prisoner. The quadrangular breakfront Carrara marble base is adorned with entrelac friezes against a green ground. The clock is raised upon four chased bun feet.

    The theme of this clock was inspired by the comic opera “Le déserteur” (The Deserter), by composer Pierre-Alexandre Monsigny  (1729-1817). The opera was first performed on March 6, 1769 at the Hôtel de Bourgogne, by the Comédie-Italienne. Based on true events, the opera tells the story of a French soldier named Alexis who deserts his regiment, believing that his fiancée Louise is about to marry someone else. He is arrested and thrown into prison. When she learns what has happened, Louise throws herself at the king’s feet and succeeds in convincing him to pardon the young man. She is so exhausted, however, that upon her return she collapses with fatigue before she is able to announce the good news. Luckily, Louis XV arrives just in time to prevent Alexis’s execution. The opera was an immediate success. The present clock depicts its most dramatic moment: the farewell scene between Alexis and Louise, with the execution squad standing in the background.

    Among the rare known examples of this clock, one was formerly in the collection of the Count of Rosebery in Mentmore Towers (sale Sotheby’s, May 19, 1977, lot 445); a second clock is illustrated in the exhibition catalogue “La folie d’Artois à Bagatelle”, 1988, p. 85, fig. 7. A further “Deserter” clock is in the Pavlovsk Palace (illustrated in A. Kuchumov, Pavlovsk, Palace & Park, Leningrad, 1975, illustration 97). A “Deserter” clock was described in the collection of the Marquis de Broglie in 1786: “A clock representing a prison and a scene with a deserter, surmounted by an enamel dial with paste-stone bezel, with military trophy, on a marble base…”.

    Jean-Louis Amant

    After becoming a master in 1751, as the son of a master, Jean-Louis Amant opened a workshop in the rue Gracieuse and was very successful. Like the best Parisian clockmakers, he called on the finest bronze casters and cabinetmakers of the day for his clock cases, including Jean Goyer, Nicolas Bonnet and the Osmonds.



    In the same category
    Kinable
    Dieudonné Kinable (active circa 1790-1810)

    Important Gilt Bronze and Marble Mantel Clock

    Domingue, Paul and Virginie”

    APF_Pendule12_05

    Paris, Directoire period, circa 1795

    Height62 Width57 Depth18

    The round enamel dial, signed “Kinable à Paris”, indicates the hours in Roman numerals, with fifteen-minute graduations and the date in Arabic numerals. There is a centre seconds hand. The bezel is decorated with three different friezes featuring stylised foliage, including a leafy torus, leaves and seeds, and terminating in beadwork. It is housed in a magnificent white marble composition that depicts a rocky mound surmounted by a palm tree, to the right and left of which there are figures. On the right hand side, a young lightly clad black man who represents Domingue; on the other side sit the two young protagonists, Paul and Virginie. The Italian red griotte marble quadrangular base has rounded sides and fluting decorated with gilt bronze mounts; it features low relief scenes including a frieze of cherubs in the manner of Clodion. The white marble moulded plinth is highlighted by beading and is itself set upon a shaped Italian red griotte marble base. The whole is raised upon six chased and gilt toupie feet.

    It was during the final years of the Ancien Régime – more precisely, during the last decade of the 18th century– that the first “au nègre” or  “au bon sauvage” clocks appeared.  They reflected a philosophical movement that found expression in several literary and historical works, and particularly Paul et Virginie, Bernardin de Saint-Pierre’s popular novel published in 1787. It tells the story of two children living on the Île de France, who, though from different families, were brought up together as brother and sister, and fall in love.

    A few late 18th century clocks depict the story of Paul et Virginie, sometimes including the slave Domingue, who was the two young lovers’ confidante. Among the few rare examples known, one model, representing Virginie and Domingue under a lemon tree, is in the François Duesberg in Mons (illustrated in E. Niehüser, Die französische Bronzeuhr, Munich, 1997, p. 153). The present clock, almost certainly unique, is thematically close to the Duesberg museum example, but the striking choice of material – white statuary marble – as well as its elaborate composition, make it one of the finest examples known to date. Kinable, the clockmaker whose signature appears on the enamel dial, was one of the best Parisian clockmakers of the period.

    Dieudonné Kinable (active circa 1790 - 1810)

    Dieudonné Kinable is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the late 18th century. His shop was located at n° 131 Palais Royal. He purchased a great number of lyre-type porcelain clock cases from the Sèvres porcelain factory, acquiring twenty-one cases in different colours. He worked with the finest artisans of the time, among them the famous enamellers Joseph Coteau (1740-1801) and Etienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson (1731-1815), both of whom furnished him with dials. Several of his pieces are mentioned as belonging to the most important collectors of the Empire period, including the Duchesse of Fitz-James and André Masséna, Prince of Essling and Duke of Rivoli, a Napoleonic Marshall.



    In the same category