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Époques: Empire

  • Thomire
    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757-1843)

    Important Eight-Light Gilt Bronze Chandelier with Matte Finishing and Molded and Faceted Crystal Prisms

    Lustre013-01_HD_PRESSE copie

    Attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805-1810

    Height150 Diamètre70

    Made entirely of very finely chased gilt bronze with matte finishing, this important chandelier is composed of a round upper canopy that is adorned with wide stiff leaves with chased detailing, to which are attached small molded and faceted crystal prisms, and which is further adorned with a leaf motif centered by a pine cone finial. It supports four chains made up of rings and lozenge-shaped pieces that are chased with stylized scales and cabochons; from them is suspended the lower portion, in the form of a classical lamp. Decorated with stylized motifs, the latter supports an upside-down tapering vase that supports three swans with bent necks and lions’ paws, upon whose wings a pierced basket is set. The body of the lamp, which features a wide mille-raie band, issues the eight curved light arms, whose scrolls are decorated with rosettes and flowers and terminate in nozzles and drip pans; a frieze of leaves adorns the lower circular portion of the vase. A motif of curving water leaves terminating in a stylized pinecone decorates the lower part of the chandelier.

    The remarkable design of this rare chandelier, and in particular the treatment of the basket supported by swans with curved necks, was inspired by the work of Parisian designers of the early 19th century, and especially those of the emperor’s architects Charles Percier and Pierre-François-Léonard Fontaine. Swan motifs appear regularly in the work of the two architects; they may be seen in contemporary furniture, horology, cabinetmaking, and bronze furnishings (see O. Nouvel-Kammerer, “Le cygne ambigu”, in the exhibition catalogue L’Aigle et le Papillon, Symboles des pouvoirs sous Napoléon 1800-1815, Musée des Arts décoratifs, Paris, 2008 p. 228-245). Our attribution of the present chandelier to the bronzier Pierre-Philippe Thomire is based on the quality of the chasing and gilding, as well as on the fact that Thomire was known to make use of the motif in his work, including in several elements of a surtout de table, one example of which is in the residence of the Ambassador of Great Britain in Paris (illustrated in J. Nérée Ronfort and J-D. Augarde, A l’ombre de Pauline, Paris, 2001, p. 64, fig. 45). A nearly identical chandelier is shown in plate 226 of a book in the Cyrillic alphabet that dates from 1950, which was devoted to important Russian collections of lighting instruments.

     

     

     

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757 - 1843)

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire was the most important Parisian bronzier of the last quarter of the 18th century and the first decades of the following century. Early on in his career he worked for Pierre Gouthière, ciseleur-fondeur du roi, and toward the mid-1770’s began working with Louis Prieur. He later became one of the bronziers attached to the Manufacture Royale de Sèvres, creating the bronze mounts for most of the important creations of the day. After the Revolution, he purchased the stock of Martin-Eloi Lignereux, thus becoming the most important suppliers of furniture bronzes for châteaux and Imperial Palaces. In addition, he worked for a wealthy private clientele, both French and foreign, including several of Napoleon’s Marshals. Thomire retired in 1823.



    In the same category
    Deverberie
    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764-1824)

    Rare Gilt and Patinated Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The American Indian”

    Pendule187_07

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1812-1815

    Height59 Width41.5 Depth10

    The round enamel dial, signed “Inv. Fec. de Verberie & Cgnie/rue des fossés du Temple n°47/A Paris”, indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. The gilt and patinated bronze case is very finely chased. The bezel is adorned with stylized bead friezes. The clock is surmounted by a very fine female figure depicting a seated black huntress wearing a feather loincloth with a quiver containing feathered arrows slung across her chest. She is coiffed with a feather headdress and has naturalistic glass eyes. She is wearing jewelry including necklaces, ankle and arm bracelets and coral earrings. She holds a bow in her right hand and a lance in her left hand. Her left foot rests on the head of a snake whose tail is wrapped around a palm tree standing to the left. The figures are placed on an arch that is decorated with leaf motifs within reserves and features applied blue enamel pastilles that are decorated with star-shaped gold paillons. The arch rests upon four lion’s paw feet and is supported by a quadrangular white marble base that is raised upon four flattened bun feet.

    Before the late 18th century, black figures were rarely used as a decorative theme in French and European horology. It was not until the end of the Ancien Regime, and more precisely, the final decade of the 18th century and early years of the following century, that the first  “au nègre” or “au sauvage” clocks were made. They made reference to a philosophical current that was conveyed by several important literary works, including Paul et Virginie by Bernardin de Saint-Pierre (published in 1787, it depicts the innocence of man), Atala by Chateaubriand, which restores the Christian ideal, and above all Daniel Defoe’s masterpiece Robinson Crusoe, published in 1719. The original drawing of the present clock, known as “L’Amérique”, was registered in the year VII by Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764-1824), one of the most important Parisian bronze caster-chasers of the late 18th century and the first two decades of the 19th century. His workshop was located in the rue Barbette in 1800, the rue du Temple in 1804, and the rue des Fossés du Temple from 1812 to 1820. The drawing appears in D. and P. Fléchon, “La pendule au nègre”, in Bulletin de l’association nationale des collectionneurs et amateurs d’horlogerie ancienne, Spring 1992, n° 63, p. 32, photo n° 3.

     

    Among the known similar clocks, two models stand on a high pedestal base. The first is in the Fondation Andrès de Ribera in Jerez de la Frontera (illustrated in Catalogo ilustrado del Museo de Relojes, 1982, p. 39). A second piece is in the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue “De noir et d’or, Pendules ‘au bon sauvage’”, Musées Royaux d’Art et d’Histoire, Brussels, 1993). Two other clocks exist, featuring figures that also stand upon arches – a very rare variation of the preceding model. The first is shown in E. Niehüser, Die französische Bronzeuhr, Eine Typologie der figürlichen Darstellungen, Munich, 1997, p. 237, fig. 809. The second features an arch that is also decorated with blue enamel pastilles with gold paillons (see P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 352, fig. A).

    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764 - 1824)

    Jean-Simon Deverberie was one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the late 18th century and the early decades of the following century.  Deverberie, who was married to Marie-Louise Veron, appears to have specialized at first in making clocks and candelabra that were adorned with exotic figures, and particularly African figures. Around 1800 he registered several preparatory designs for “au nègre” clocks, including the “Africa”, “America”, and “Indian Man and Woman” models (the drawings for which are today preserved in the Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris). He opened a workshop in the rue Barbette around 1800, in the rue du Temple around 1804, and in the rue des Fossés du Temple between 1812 and 1820.



    In the same category
    Galle
    Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Rare Pair of Gilt and Patinated Bronze Three-Light Candelabras with Matte and Burnished Finishing

    “The Seated Vestals”

    Candelabres027-05_HD_WEB

    Attributed to Claude Galle

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height57,5 Width27,5 Depth13,2

    Made entirely of finely chased patinated and gilt bronze with matte and burnished finishing, the candelabra are in the form of magnificent seated female figures with crossed legs, who are dressed in classical tunics. They hold fringed draperies that support candelabra in the form of oil lamps with two beakers, which are elaborately decorated with mascarons, scrolling, flowers, acanthus leaves, and rosettes. The lamps contain three nozzles, including a central one with arabesque handles in the shape of swans’ heads. The figures are seated on cushions that are engraved with leaves and stems and have tassels at each corner. The tall square bases are adorned with applied rosettes, ribbon-tied wreaths, and female figures with scrolls, holding torches. The quadrangular molded plinths feature lambrequin friezes alternating with roundels and stems.

    The present candelabra feature an elaborate design, particularly as concerns the treatment of the seated female figures whose legs are crossed in an “oriental” posture, which appear to have been inspired by antique Egyptian sculptures of seated figures. One such model was singled out by the Count de Caylus, who included an illustration of it in his well-known Recueil d’Antiquités égyptiennes. The present candelabra, which have sometimes been attributed to a Russian bronze caster, stand out due to the exceptional quality of their gilding and chasing. This allows their confident attribution to Claude Galle, one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the Empire period. Although there are some stylistic similarities with certain Russian creations of the period, and particularly those by Friedrich Bergenfeldt, the well-known bronzier to the Russian Court (see I. Sychev, Russian Bronze, Moscow, 2003, p. 96-97), the most striking similarities are those with a clock created by Galle around 1805; it represents a young woman who supports a clock movement with her upraised arms; one example of this model is in the Mobilier national in Paris (illustrated in M-F. Dupuy-Baylet, Pendules du Mobilier national 1800-1870, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2006, p. 114, n° 49). Among the small number of identical pairs of candelabra, one pair is illustrated in G. and R. Wannenes, Les bronzes ornementaux et les objets montés, De Louis XIV à Napoléon III, Milan, 2004, p. 375. A second pair, formerly in the Galerie Ariane Dandois in Paris, is illustrated in the exhibition catalogue L’Empire à travers l’Europe 1800-1830, Paris, 2000, catalogue n° 12.

    Claude Galle (1759 - 1815)

    One of the foremost bronziers and fondeur-ciseleurs of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods, Claude Galle was born at Villepreux near Versailles. He served his apprenticeship in Paris under the fondeur Pierre Foy, and in 1784 married Foy’s daughter. In 1786 he became a maitre-fondeur. After the death of  his father-in-law in 1788, Galle took over his workshop, soon turning it into one the finest, and employing approximately 400 craftsmen. Galle moved to Quai de la Monnaie (later Quai de l’Unité), and then in 1805 to 60 Rue Vivienne.

    The Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, under the direction of sculptor Jean Hauré from 1786-88, entrusted him with many commissions. Galle collaborated with many excellent artisans, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, and furnished the majority of the furnishing bronzes for the Château de Fontainebleau during the Empire. He received many other Imperial commissions, among them light fittings, figural clock cases, and vases for the palaces of Saint-Cloud, the Trianons, the Tuileries, Compiègne, and Rambouillet. He supplied several Italian palaces, such as Monte Cavallo, Rome and Stupinigi near Turin.

    In spite of his success, and due in part to his generous and lavish lifestyle, as well as to the failure of certain of his clients (such as the Prince Joseph Bonaparte) to pay what they owed, Galle often found himself in financial difficulty. Galle’s business was continued by his son after his death by his son, Gérard-Jean Galle (1788-1846). Today his work may be found in the world’s most important museums and collections, those mentioned above, as well as the Musée National du Château de Malmaison, the Musée Marmottan in Paris, the Museo de Reloges at Jerez de la Frontera, the Residenz in Munich, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.



    Galle
    Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Rare Pair of Green Marble and Gilt Bronze Elongated Vases with Matte Finishing

    “The Naiads”

    Vases019-03_HD_WEB

    Attributed to Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height50.5 Width13.5

    The vases, made of finely chased matte gilt bronze, feature bellies that are decorated with applied motifs depicting classically draped female figures holding wreaths in their hands, which are placed within beveled octagonal frames. The handles are in the form of winged naiads that are playing trumpets and whose intertwining tails descend onto the bellies of the vases. The vases’ high sloping necks are decorated with knurled friezes. The bottom portions of the vases are adorned with a bouquet of alternating stylized palmettes and flowers. The spreading bases feature a gadrooned knop and a torus decorated with simulated snake scales. The quadrangular green marble bases are decorated with molding.

    The remarkable composition of the present pair of elongated vases, and particularly the treatment of their handles in the form of naiad musicians, support an attribution to Claude Galle, one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the Empire period. Today a small number of identical examples are known, some of which feature variations in the treatment of the bases and the applied motifs on the bellies; most of these are attributed to Galle. One pair attributed to Claude Gall is illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 365, fig. 5.12.8. A second pair with three-light candelabra was included among the furnishings assembled for the First Consul at the Château de Saint-Cloud in 1802-1803; it is today in the Grand Trianon in the gardens of the Château de Versailles (illustrated in D. Ledoux-Lebard, Inventaire général du Musée national de Versailles et des Trianons, Tome 1, Le Grand Trianon, Meubles et objets d’art, Paris, 1975, p. 62). One further pair of comparable vases, also mounted as candelabra, is on display in the Villa Masséna in Nice (L. Mézin, La Villa Masséna du Premier Empire à la Belle Epoque, Editions d’art Somogy, 2010, p. 54-55, catalogue n° 10).

    Claude Galle (1759 - 1815)

    One of the foremost bronziers and fondeur-ciseleurs of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods, Claude Galle was born at Villepreux near Versailles. He served his apprenticeship in Paris under the fondeur Pierre Foy, and in 1784 married Foy’s daughter. In 1786 he became a maitre-fondeur. After the death of  his father-in-law in 1788, Galle took over his workshop, soon turning it into one the finest, and employing approximately 400 craftsmen. Galle moved to Quai de la Monnaie (later Quai de l’Unité), and then in 1805 to 60 Rue Vivienne.

    The Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, under the direction of sculptor Jean Hauré from 1786-88, entrusted him with many commissions. Galle collaborated with many excellent artisans, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, and furnished the majority of the furnishing bronzes for the Château de Fontainebleau during the Empire. He received many other Imperial commissions, among them light fittings, figural clock cases, and vases for the palaces of Saint-Cloud, the Trianons, the Tuileries, Compiègne, and Rambouillet. He supplied several Italian palaces, such as Monte Cavallo, Rome and Stupinigi near Turin.

    In spite of his success, and due in part to his generous and lavish lifestyle, as well as to the failure of certain of his clients (such as the Prince Joseph Bonaparte) to pay what they owed, Galle often found himself in financial difficulty. Galle’s business was continued by his son after his death by his son, Gérard-Jean Galle (1788-1846). Today his work may be found in the world’s most important museums and collections, those mentioned above, as well as the Musée National du Château de Malmaison, the Musée Marmottan in Paris, the Museo de Reloges at Jerez de la Frontera, the Residenz in Munich, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.



    Galle
    Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Important Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock with Matte Finishing

    Vase with Winged Naiads

    Vase_pendule002-06_HD_WEB

    Attributed to Claude Galle

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805

    Height60.5 Width34

    The rotating dial indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic numeral minutes. It is fitted in a finely chased, matte gilt case in the form of a vase. The clock is surmounted by an eagle holding a snake in its claws. The handles are formed by two superb winged female figures whose bodies terminate in scrolling leaves; they hold flaming urns that are adorned with gadrooning. The vase is adorned with vine leaves, swans facing each other and drinking from a bowl, medallions centered by groups of child musicians, one of whom is holding music, which are surmounted by a lion’s mask with snakes. The child musicians are surrounded by motifs of addorsed griffons, palmettes, and dancing putti holding a draperies that terminate in garlands of flowers and leaves on which a birds perch. The lower portion is adorned with a bouquet of large leaves and stylized palmettes. The tapering pedestal is decorated with a gadrooned knop and a torus of laurel leaves and seeds. The shaped quadrangular base with rounded corners features a cavetto frieze with applied motifs including griffons, scrolls and winged female figures. The clock is raised on six small, flattened ball feet.

    The composition of this vase-form clock was inspired by neoclassical models of the second half of the 18th century. One of the most elaborate horological models of the Napoleonic period, during that time it was also produced as an ornamental vase. One such pair of vases may be seen in A. Kuchumov, Pavlovsk, Palace & Park, Leningrad, 1975, p. 52-53. Among the few similar examples known to exist, one clock whose dial is signed “Thonissen à Paris” is in the Württembergisches Landesmuseum in Stuttgart (illustrated in R. Mühe and H. Vogel, Horloges anciennes, Fribourg, 1978, p. 116, fig. 154). A second example, once part of the collection of Empress Eugenie, was formerly in the Perez de Olaguer-Feliu collection in Barcelona (see Luis Monreal y Tejada, Relojes antiguos (1500-1850), Coleccion F. Perez de Olaguer-Feliu, Barcelona, 1955, plate 71, catalogue n° 90). A third example is in the Royal Spanish Collection (see J. Ramon Colon de Carvajal, Catalogo de Relojes del Patrimonio nacional, Madrid, 1987, p. 207, n° 189). Two further similar clocks, one with a round dial and the other with a cadrans tournants dial, are in the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (see Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Bruxelles, 2004, p. 32-33).

    Claude Galle (1759 - 1815)

    One of the foremost bronziers and fondeur-ciseleurs of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods, Claude Galle was born at Villepreux near Versailles. He served his apprenticeship in Paris under the fondeur Pierre Foy, and in 1784 married Foy’s daughter. In 1786 he became a maitre-fondeur. After the death of  his father-in-law in 1788, Galle took over his workshop, soon turning it into one the finest, and employing approximately 400 craftsmen. Galle moved to Quai de la Monnaie (later Quai de l’Unité), and then in 1805 to 60 Rue Vivienne.

    The Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, under the direction of sculptor Jean Hauré from 1786-88, entrusted him with many commissions. Galle collaborated with many excellent artisans, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, and furnished the majority of the furnishing bronzes for the Château de Fontainebleau during the Empire. He received many other Imperial commissions, among them light fittings, figural clock cases, and vases for the palaces of Saint-Cloud, the Trianons, the Tuileries, Compiègne, and Rambouillet. He supplied several Italian palaces, such as Monte Cavallo, Rome and Stupinigi near Turin.

    In spite of his success, and due in part to his generous and lavish lifestyle, as well as to the failure of certain of his clients (such as the Prince Joseph Bonaparte) to pay what they owed, Galle often found himself in financial difficulty. Galle’s business was continued by his son after his death by his son, Gérard-Jean Galle (1788-1846). Today his work may be found in the world’s most important museums and collections, those mentioned above, as well as the Musée National du Château de Malmaison, the Musée Marmottan in Paris, the Museo de Reloges at Jerez de la Frontera, the Residenz in Munich, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.



    Rare Gilt Bronze and Red Turquin Marble Skeleton Clock

    Pendule425-04_HD_WEB

    France, late Empire period, circa 1810-1815

    Height39.5

    The white enamel annular dial indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two blued steel Breguet hands. The hour and half hour striking movement is housed in a gilt bronze case that is finely chased and matte gilt. The bezel is decorated with a frieze of stylized palmettes; the movement, with lateral gears that support the two weights and the pendulum, features two reed-decorated feet that terminate in lion’s paw feet, which emerge from curving leaves linked by a pierced motif made up of acanthus leaves, C-scrolls, flowers and rosettes. The quadrangular red turquin marble base with rounded sides is raised upon four molded feet that are decorated with bead friezes.

    During the final decade of the 18th century, the first models of skeleton clocks, whose sober composition featured a main annular dial that revealed the beauty of the movement and its gear trains, and whose complex mechanisms were made by the finest European clockmakers, most of whom were Parisian. The rise of this new style was due to the fact that admirers of fine horology were enthusiastic about the extraordinary technical progress made since the mid 18th century, as well as by the fact that collectors had become tired of clocks decorated with figures from classical mythology. The present clock was created within that historical context. Its remarkable composition is characteristic of the best French production of the 19th century.

    Among the small number of similar clocks known today, one example, made circa 1800, whose dial is signed “Lépine Horloger du Roy Place des Victoires”, has a round enamel dial and a white marble base (illustrated in P. Heuer and K. Maurice, European Pendulum Clocks, Decorative Instruments of Measuring Time, Edition Schiffer Publishing Ltd., Munich, 1988, p. 63, fig. 103); a second example of a skeleton clock from the Directoire period is in the collection of the Horological School in  Dreux (see Tardy, La pendule française dans le Monde, Paris, 1994, p. 239). One further example, similar to the present clock, which was made in 1817 and given to the Conservatoire national des Arts et Métiers de Paris by J. Andeoud  in 1885, is illustrated in F.B. Royer-Collard, Skeleton Clocks, Edition N.A.G. Press Ltd, London, 1977, p. 80-81, fig. 5-17 (see also Le XIXe siècle français, Collection Connaissance des Arts, Hachette, 1957, p. 139).

    Jolly  -  Galle
    François-Pierre Jolly (?-after 1820)
    Claude Galle (1759-1815)

    Important Gilt and Patinated Bronze Mantel Clock with Matte and Burnished Finishing

    “Diana the Huntress Resting”

    Pendule419-04_HD_WEB

    Gaston Jolly

    Case Attributed to Claude Galle

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805-1810

    Height63 Width55 Depth15

    The white enamel annular dial, signed “Gaston Jolly à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours, the Arabic numeral fifteen-minute intervals, and the date by means of three hands, two of which are made of pierced and gilt brass. In its center is a painted medallion indicating the moon phases and the age of the moon along its upper border, with a perspective landscape showing a lady walking along a path, and in the background a seascape with sailing ships. The hour and half hour striking movement is housed in a finely chased, patinated and gilt bronze  case with matte and burnished finishing, which features a figure depicting Diana resting after the hunt. The bezel is adorned with friezes of beads and interlacing patterns. Surmounting the clock is a fine sculptural figure representing Diana wearing classical robes and a diadem, and bearing a quiver slung across her chest. She holds a bow in her left hand and a swan, the result of her hunt, which is being examined by a dog standing on its hind legs. She is seated on a naturalistic rocky terrace which also contains a sculptural group depicting a reclining stag and a fawn. The shaped quadrangular base, with rounded corners, is elaborately adorned with applied motifs and decorated reserves. On the sides, there are dogs hunting or eating, and a panel with mythological scenes depicting two nymphs riding on sea creatures, including a seahorse. The clock stands on six knurled feet decorated with hatching and beads.

    The exceptional quality of the chasing and gilding of this important mantel clock, as well as its remarkable composition, make it one of the most successful models of the early 19th century. It may be attributed to Claude Galle, one of the finest Parisian bronze casters of the time. A comparable pyramid-shaped clock, which depicts a resting Omphale holding Hercules’s club, bears Galle’s signature. At the time, his shop was located in the rue Vivienne in Paris (illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Die Bronzearbeiten des Spätbarock und Klassizismus, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 371, fig. 5.13.19). The clock is also shown in E. Niehüser, Die Französische Bronzeuhr, Eine Typologie der figürlichen Darstellungen, Munich, 1997, p. 65, fig. 92.

    François-Pierre Jolly (? - after 1820)

    François-Pierre Jolly, known as Gaston-Jolly, is one of the most important Parisian horologists of the late 18th century and the early 19th century. After he became a master, on May 6, 1784, he established his workshop in the rue de Arcis and quickly earned a reputation among Parisian horological connoisseurs. During the Directoire and the Empire, he created several clocks, which were sought-after due to the quality of their movements and their original compositions. He is recorded first in the rue Pavée Saint-Sauveur from 1810 to 1820, then in the boulevard Poissonnière in 1820. Certain of his creations were recorded during the Empire as belonging to important collectors of the day, such as the wife of Charles-Philibert-Marie-Gaston de Lévis, comte de Mirepoix and Bernard-Charles-Louis-Victor, Marquis de Lostanges, Napoleon’s Chambellan.



    Claude Galle (1759 - 1815)

    One of the foremost bronziers and fondeur-ciseleurs of the late Louis XVI and Empire periods, Claude Galle was born at Villepreux near Versailles. He served his apprenticeship in Paris under the fondeur Pierre Foy, and in 1784 married Foy’s daughter. In 1786 he became a maitre-fondeur. After the death of  his father-in-law in 1788, Galle took over his workshop, soon turning it into one the finest, and employing approximately 400 craftsmen. Galle moved to Quai de la Monnaie (later Quai de l’Unité), and then in 1805 to 60 Rue Vivienne.

    The Garde-Meuble de la Couronne, under the direction of sculptor Jean Hauré from 1786-88, entrusted him with many commissions. Galle collaborated with many excellent artisans, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, and furnished the majority of the furnishing bronzes for the Château de Fontainebleau during the Empire. He received many other Imperial commissions, among them light fittings, figural clock cases, and vases for the palaces of Saint-Cloud, the Trianons, the Tuileries, Compiègne, and Rambouillet. He supplied several Italian palaces, such as Monte Cavallo, Rome and Stupinigi near Turin.

    In spite of his success, and due in part to his generous and lavish lifestyle, as well as to the failure of certain of his clients (such as the Prince Joseph Bonaparte) to pay what they owed, Galle often found himself in financial difficulty. Galle’s business was continued by his son after his death by his son, Gérard-Jean Galle (1788-1846). Today his work may be found in the world’s most important museums and collections, those mentioned above, as well as the Musée National du Château de Malmaison, the Musée Marmottan in Paris, the Museo de Reloges at Jerez de la Frontera, the Residenz in Munich, and the Victoria and Albert Museum in London.



    Manière
    Charles-Guillaume Hautemanière (?-1834)

    Rare Matte Gilt Bronze Desk Regulator with Perpetual Calendar

    Regulateur030-03_HD_WEB

    Charles-Guillaume Hautemanière, known as Manière

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805-1810

    Height43.5 Width24.5 Depth15.5

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Manière à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours, the Arabic numeral fifteen-minute intervals, the date, the days of the week along with their respective astrological signs, and the months, by means of five hands, two of which are in pierced gilt bronze and three of which are in blued steel. The hour and half hour striking movement has a compensated bimetallic pendulum has a heavy round bob that improves the precision of the movement. The neoclassical architectural case has glazed sides. The slightly protruding cornice is adorned with a stylized waterleaf frieze; it supports a molded entablature and rests on four fluted pillars with molded capitals and bases. It is adorned with cut-out panels: on the façade, two winged horses whose scaly tails are wrapped around branches with a central motif featuring a flower that is flanked by scrolls, and on the sides, framed arches with putti musicians. The dial surmounts a delicate drapery which issues an arabesque motif with palmettes and volutes and is framed by figures of Fame playing the trumpet. The rectangular terrace is centered by an oval motif with radiating fluting. The quadrangular base with protruding corners is adorned with applied lozenges, facing griffons with acanthus leaf tails, round mascarons with petal borders and a molded plinth.

    The unusual composition of the present rare desk regulator was inspired by certain clocks that were made in Paris during the last two decades of the 18th century. However its architectural design, in the form of an Arc de Triomphe, bears testimony to the Emperor’s influence on the decorative arts of the time and his desire to commemorate the victories of the Grande Armée. Among the small number of comparable clocks known today, one example, made by “Lepaute à Paris 1807”, is in the collection of the Mobilier National in Paris (shown in M-F. Dupuy-Baylet, Pendule du Mobilier national 1800-1870, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2006, p. 91, catalogue n° 35). A second clock is on display in the Château of  Fontainebleau (see J-P. Samoyault, Musée national du Château de Fontainebleau, Catalogue des collections de mobilier, 1. Pendules et bronzes d’ameublement entrés sous le Premier Empire, RMN, Paris, 1989, p. 69, catalogue n° 32). There are two further clocks that are identical to the present one: the first, whose dial is signed “Thiéry à Paris”, is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 373. The second, whose dial is signed “Laguesse à Paris” and which is surmounted by an allegorical figure, was formerly in the collection of “Au Balancier de Cristal” (illustrated in Tardy, La pendule française, 2ème Partie : Du Louis XVI à nos jours, Paris, 1974, p. 397).

    Charles-Guillaume Hautemanière (? - 1834)

    Charles-Guillaume Hautemanière, known as Manière (mort à Paris en 1834) is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the late 18th and early 19th centuries, he became a Master on May 1, 1778, and opened a workshop in the rue du Four-Saint-Honoré. He immediately became famous among connoisseurs of fine horology. Throughout his career, Manière sourced his clock cases from the best Parisian bronze casters and chasers, including Pierre-Philippe Thomire, François Rémond, Edmé Roy and Claude Galle. Marchands-merciers such as Dominique Daguerre and Martin-Eloi Lignereux called upon him to make clocks for the most influential collectors of the time, including the Prince de Salm, the banker Perregaux and the financier Micault de Courbeton, all three of whom were collectors of fine and rare horological pieces. Today, his clocks are found in the most important international private and public collections, including the Hermitage Museum in Saint Petersburg, the Musée national du château de Fontainebleau, the Quirinal Palace in Rome, the Nissim de Camondo Museum in Paris and the Musée national du château de Versailles et des Trianons.



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