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Thématiques: Chariot

  • Ravrio  -  Dubuisson
    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759-1814)
    Dubuisson (1731-1815)

    Important Gilt Bronze and White Carrara Marble Mantel Clock

    “The Chariot of Diana the Huntress”

    Pendule405-03_HD_WEB

    Probably David-Frédéric Dubois

    The Enamel Dial attributed to Etienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson

    The Case attributed to Antoine-André Ravrio

    Paris, début de l’époque Empire, vers 1805

    Height46 Width53.5 Depth16.5

    The blue enamel annular dial, signed “Dubois R.S.Hre N°207 à Paris”, indicates the Roman numeral hours in white cartouches and the outermost minutes graduation by means of two blued steel Breguet hands. It forms the wheel of a chariot that is drawn by two galloping greyhounds. In the chariot sits a beautiful female figure representing Diana as a huntress; dressed in classical draperies, she is about to shoot an arrow. The chariot is adorned with a roaring stag and a band of oak leaves and acorns. The terrace is decorated with oak branches and a hunting trophy. The quadrangular base with rounded corners is embellished with beadwork friezes and an openwork band of alternating palmettes and stylized leaves. The clock is raised upon six knurled toupie feet.

    The chariot motif was not used in Parisian clocks until the Empire period. This was no doubt due to the difficulty encountered by 18th century horologists when they attempted to integrate a clock movement and dial into such compositions. This ceased to be an obstacle when the artisans of the early years of the following century began to fit their dials into chariot wheels. The remarkable composition of the present clock model may be attributed to Antoine-André Ravrio, one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the Empire period. Today a small number of comparable clocks are known, most of the chariots being drawn by deer. One example, commissioned for Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn, is in the Royal Dutch Collection in The Hague (illustrated in Royal Clocks in Paleis Het Loo, A Catalogue, 2003, p. 38). A second example, whose movement is signed “Armingault à Paris”, features a chariot drawn by only one deer (see P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 419, fig. G). One further clock, which is identical to the present clock with the exception of its green marble base, is part of the collection of the Ecole d’Horlogerie in Dreux, while a second example is in the collection of the Hesse Castle in Darmstadt (see M. Gay and A. Lemaire, “Les pendules au char”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des Collectionneurs et Amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne, Spring 1993, n° 66, p. 37).

    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759 - 1814)

    Made master bronzier in 1777, he is one of the most important Parisian bronze workers of the late 18th century and the early Empire period. Supplier of bronzes to the Imperial Garde-meuble, Ravrio helped furnish Napoleon’s residences, along with Thomire and Galle; he also worked for some of the most influential figures of the time, including Marshals of the Empire. Today certain of his works are in the collections of the Mobilier national in Paris.



    Dubuisson (1731 - 1815)

    Étienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson, was one of the best enamellers working in Paris during the latter part of the 18th century and the early 19th century. During the mid 1750’s he was employed at Sèvres, then opened his own workshop, being recorded in the 1790’s in the rue de la Huchette and, circa 1812, in the rue de la Calandre. Specializing in enamelled watch cases and clock dials, he is known for his great skill and attention to detail.



    Ravrio
    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759-1814)

    Rare Gilt Bronze and White Carrara Marble Mantel Clock

    “Venus’s Chariot with Paris”

    Pendule346-04_HD_WEB

    Model Attributed to André-Antoine Ravrio

    France and England, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height42.5 Width58 Depth16

    The pierced dial indicates the Arabic numeral hours and minutes by means of two blued steel Breguet hands. The movement is fitted in the wheel of a chariot, whose center is decorated with alternating palmettes and flowers. A young woman wearing a belted antique tunic is riding in it, sitting in a stylized shell. An allegory of the goddess Venus, she has a dove perched on her left knee. She is turning toward a young man who is dressed in a short classical tunic, with laced sandals and a horn slung across his back. He represents the shepherd Paris, as shown by the long stick he is holding, and the dog seated at his feet. At the front of the chariot stands the young Cupid, holding the reins of the chariot, which is drawn by two swans with outstretched wings and curving necks. The quadrangular white Carrara marble base has canted and fluted corners. It is adorned with applied motifs including a Cupid sharpening a knife and a Cupid forging metal, with a central motif of two doves holding leafy garlands in their beaks and two hearts pierced by an arrow, engraved with initials and surmounted by a rose wreath. The clock is raised upon eight tapering, knurled feet.

    The remarkable design of this clock may be confidently attributed to André-Antoine Ravrio, who in 1809 delivered an identical clock to the Elysée Palace. However, if the mounts were clearly made in Paris, certain technical details, including the manner of assembling the elements and movement, display an English influence. This suggests that the elements were ordered in Paris by an important British clockmaker and subsequently assembled in England. That clockmaker may have been Benjamin Vulliamy (1747-1811), certain of whose creations show a distinct French influence.

    Among the small number of identical clocks known to exist today, one example, almost certainly from the collection of Napoleon’s mother Madame Mère, is today on display in the Musée national du Château de Malmaison (illustrated in B. Chevallier, La Mesure du Temps dans les collections du Musée de Malmaison, RMN, Paris, 1991, p. 20, catalogue n° 11). A second clock, which corresponds to the model described in 1809 as standing in the drawing room of the Murat family in the Elysée Palace, and which is today part of the collection of the Mobilier national in Paris (see M-F. Dupuy-Baylet, Pendules du Mobilier national 1800-1870, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2006, p. 25). One further such clock was estimated at 650 francs in December 1815, in the probate inventory of Michel Ney, the famous Napoleonic Marshal, whom the Emperor called “the bravest of the brave”: “A clock representing the chariot of Venus, drawn by swans and driven by Cupid, with the handsome Paris, standing on a green marble base with gilt bronze ornaments, which gilt bronze clock with striking indicates the hours and has a pierced enamel dial.”

    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759 - 1814)

    Made master bronzier in 1777, he is one of the most important Parisian bronze workers of the late 18th century and the early Empire period. Supplier of bronzes to the Imperial Garde-meuble, Ravrio helped furnish Napoleon’s residences, along with Thomire and Galle; he also worked for some of the most influential figures of the time, including Marshals of the Empire. Today certain of his works are in the collections of the Mobilier national in Paris.



    Deverberie
    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764-1824)

    Important Gilt Bronze and Green Marble Mantel Clock “Apollo’s Chariot”

    Pendule332-04_BD_MAIL

    Model Attributed to the Bronzier Jean-Simon Deverberie

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810

    Height61.5 Width76 Depth24.5

    The white enamel ring dial, which is decorated with engine-turned molding, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the outermost minutes graduations by means of pierced blued steel hands. It is fitted into the wheel of a chariot whose spokes are quivers of arrows that is elaborately adorned with scrolls, garlands, leaf friezes, eagles’ heads, Egyptian herms wearing nemes headdresses, mascarons, lions’ heads, a fringed drapery, and rosettes. Seated on the chariot is a magnificent figure of Apollo, the god of music. He is draped in a toga that is fluttering in the wind. Apollo is wearing a laurel leaf crown and holds a seven-stringed lyre in one hand and the reins in the other. A winged Cupid with winged heels stands at the front of the chariot; he is wearing Mercury’s helmet and is holding a caduceus. He holds the reins of two rearing horses with elaborate saddlecloths. The quadrangular green marble base is decorated with bead friezes, with reserves decorated with pierced friezes alternating with flowers, scrolls, baskets, and flaming torches. The clock rests upon eight feet that are finely chased with stylized leaves.

    Before the 19th century Parisian clockmakers and bronze casters rarely used the chariot as a decorative or ornamental motif. It was not until the reign of Napoleon and the advent of the Empire period that the first chariot clocks appeared, featuring gods, goddesses, and heroes riding in majestic two- or four-wheeled chariots. They embodied the military virtues that were extolled by the Emperor’s Marshals. The present clock, made within that particular context, features an unusual composition that may be confidently attributed to Jean-Simon Deverberie, one of the finest Parisian bronziers of the Empire period. Identical in design to a model that the same size and is also based on the Apollo theme, it bears the signature “Inv. et fait par Deverberie rue Barbet au Marais Paris”. One such chased and gilt bronze example was formerly in the Galerie Gismondi in Paris (illustrated in J-D. Augarde, Les ouvriers du Temps, La pendule à Paris de Louis XIV à Napoléon Ier, Genève, 1996, p. 143, fig. 106).

    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764 - 1824)

    Jean-Simon Deverberie was one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the late 18th century and the early decades of the following century.  Deverberie, who was married to Marie-Louise Veron, appears to have specialized at first in making clocks and candelabra that were adorned with exotic figures, and particularly African figures. Around 1800 he registered several preparatory designs for “au nègre” clocks, including the “Africa”, “America”, and “Indian Man and Woman” models (the drawings for which are today preserved in the Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris). He opened a workshop in the rue Barbette around 1800, in the rue du Temple around 1804, and in the rue des Fossés du Temple between 1812 and 1820.



    Deverberie
    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764-1824)

    Rare Chased, Patinated and Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

     

    Pendule318-03_HD_WEB

    Attributed to Jean-Simon Deverberie

    Paris, Directoire period, circa 1795-1800

    Height34 Width45 Depth12

    The enamel ring dial indicates the Roman numeral hours and the minute graduations by means of two blued steel hands. Revealing the skeleton movement, it forms the wheel of a small chariot driven by a young woman modelled in chased and gilt bronze. Dressed in an Empire-waist dress, her hair tied up in a bun, she holds a whip in one hand and in the other the reins of the spirited, patinated bronze horse that is harnessed to the chariot. Behind the young woman stands a young black boy with enamel eyes, wearing a feather headdress and loincloth. He adds an exotic touch to the composition. The moulded a rectangular base is adorned with foliate motifs, scrolls and palmettes; the four feet are decorated with foliate motifs.

    In the late 18th century, the philosophical writings of Jean-Jacques Rousseau extolled the virtues of a return to Nature via the myth of the “noble savage”. Due to their influence exoticism became fashionable in contemporary literature. Bernardin de Saint Pierre’s great success “Paul et Virginie”, published in 1788, Daniel Defoe’s famous “Robinson Crusoe”, Marmontel’s novel “Les Incas”, published during the American Revolutionary War, and Chateaubriand’s “Atala”, published in 1801, all profoundly changed Europeans’ view of other civilisations. This literary movement created a romantic vision of a sort of pagan Garden of Eden, renewed and regenerated by Christianity. As often happened in the French decorative arts, this was to have an effect on many artistic creations, particularly clocks and lighting instruments. This is the context within which the present clock was created by bronze caster Jean-Simon Deverberie in the late 18th century. It is particularly interesting because it is related to two types of clock, both extremely sought-after by knowledgeable horological collectors at the time; the “pendule au nègre” and the “pendule au char”.

    Very few similar clocks are known; most date from a later period. One such example is illustrated in Tardy, La pendule française, du Louis XVI à nos jours, Paris, 1975, p. 377; a second clock is in the François Duesberg Museum in Mons (see Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Bruxelles, 2004, p. 54); a third example is in the collection of the Princes of Hessen in the Fasanerie Palace in Fulda (illustrated in the exhibition catalogue Gehäuse der Zeit, 2002, p. 93).

    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764 - 1824)

    Jean-Simon Deverberie was one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the late 18th century and the early decades of the following century.  Deverberie, who was married to Marie-Louise Veron, appears to have specialized at first in making clocks and candelabra that were adorned with exotic figures, and particularly African figures. Around 1800 he registered several preparatory designs for “au nègre” clocks, including the “Africa”, “America”, and “Indian Man and Woman” models (the drawings for which are today preserved in the Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris). He opened a workshop in the rue Barbette around 1800, in the rue du Temple around 1804, and in the rue des Fossés du Temple between 1812 and 1820.



    Deprest  -  Deverberie
    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764-1824)

    Rare Matte and Burnished Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    “Cupid’s Chariot”

    Pendule_214-07_HD_WEB

    Deprest

    Case Attributed to Bronze Caster Jean-Simon Deverberie

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1810-1815

    Height39 Width47.8 Depth13.8

    The round enamel dial, signed “Deprest à Montpellier”, indicates the Roman numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two blued steel Breguet hands. It is set in the wheel of a chariot drawn by two spirited horses with enamel eyes. The movement is housed in a drum case that forms the body of the chariot, with a magnificent fire-breathing dragon making up its back portion, the front being composed of a shell on which Cupid stands. The young god has enamel eyes; he is clad in light drapery that is slung across one shoulder. He brandishes a flaming torch in his right hand and holds the reins in his left. The rectangular base with sloping molding is decorated with motifs of ribbon-tied crossed torches and quivers of arrows on either side, with a central motif of stylized fronds centered by a fluted urn flanked by putti. The clock is raised upon four lion paw feet.

    The high quality of the present clock’s chasing and gilding and its unusual design are typical of the work of bronze caster Jean-Simon Deverberie, the extremely talented Parisian artisan who created the clock during the First Empire. Only a few similar examples are known.  One of these, identical to the present clock, bears Deverberie’s signature as well as that of the enameler Dubuisson (see Bulletin ANCAHA, op. cit, p. 22, fig. 25). Another identical clock is in the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (see Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Brussels, 2004, p. 38).

    Several similar clocks are known, which feature variations in the treatment of their bases. One is in the Andrès de Ribera Foundation in Jerez de la Frontera (see Catalogo ilustrado del Museo de Relojes, 1982, p. 91); a second example is illustrated in the exhibition catalogue French Clocks from the Age of Napoleon, Phoenix Art Museum, 1998-1999, p. 19. A third similar clock is in the Royal Spanish Collection (shown in J. Ramon Colon de Carvajal, Catalogo de Relojes del Patrimonio nacional, Madrid, 1987, p. 146, catalogue n° 123).

    Jean-Simon Deverberie (1764 - 1824)

    Jean-Simon Deverberie was one of the most important Parisian bronziers of the late 18th century and the early decades of the following century.  Deverberie, who was married to Marie-Louise Veron, appears to have specialized at first in making clocks and candelabra that were adorned with exotic figures, and particularly African figures. Around 1800 he registered several preparatory designs for “au nègre” clocks, including the “Africa”, “America”, and “Indian Man and Woman” models (the drawings for which are today preserved in the Cabinet des Estampes in the Bibliothèque nationale in Paris). He opened a workshop in the rue Barbette around 1800, in the rue du Temple around 1804, and in the rue des Fossés du Temple between 1812 and 1820.



    Ravrio  -  Dubuisson
    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759-1814)
    Dubuisson (1731-1815)

    Important Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    Diana’s Chariot

    APF_Pendule162_03

    Case Attributed to Antoine-André Ravrio

    Dial Attributed to Parisian Enameller Etienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson

    Paris, Empire period, circa 1805-1810

    Height47.5 Width56 Depth13

    The round enamel dial, decorated in the manner of Coteau, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the minutes graduations along its outer edge by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. It forms the wheel of an antique chariot drawn by two stags that is driven by Diana, the goddess of the hunt. The goddess is taking an arrow from her quiver and holding the reins in her other hand. She has placed her prey in the back of the chariot. The architectural base is raised upon six lion feet and is decorated with applied motifs representing ribbon-tied trophies and diamonds centred by flowerets and flanked by palmettes and griffons, with a central scene that depicts a wild boar hunt.

    The chariot motif was rarely used in Parisian clocks prior to the Empire period. This was no doubt due to the difficulty for 18th century clockmakers of incorporating their movements and dials in the model. This difficulty was overcome by clockmakers of the early 19th century, who placed their dials in the chariot wheels.

    The present clock’s unusual and remarkable design may be attributed to Antoine-André Ravrio, one of the most important Parisian bronze casters of the Empire period.  Among the rare identical clocks known today, one example was commissioned to furnish the Het Loo Palace in Apeldoorn; it is today in the Royal Dutch collections in the Hague (illustrated in Royal Clocks in Paleis Het Loo, A Catalogue, 2003, p. 38). Another example, whose movement is signed “Armingault à Paris”, features a chariot drawn by a single stag (shown in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 419, fig. G). One further example, with a movement signed “Mesnil à Paris”, is in the Musée des Arts décoratifs of Karlsruhe (illustrated in M. Gay and A. Lemaire, “Les pendules au char”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des Collectionneurs et Amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne, Spring 1993, n° 66, p. 37, fig. 51).

    André-Antoine Ravrio (1759 - 1814)

    Made master bronzier in 1777, he is one of the most important Parisian bronze workers of the late 18th century and the early Empire period. Supplier of bronzes to the Imperial Garde-meuble, Ravrio helped furnish Napoleon’s residences, along with Thomire and Galle; he also worked for some of the most influential figures of the time, including Marshals of the Empire. Today certain of his works are in the collections of the Mobilier national in Paris.



    Dubuisson (1731 - 1815)

    Étienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson, was one of the best enamellers working in Paris during the latter part of the 18th century and the early 19th century. During the mid 1750’s he was employed at Sèvres, then opened his own workshop, being recorded in the 1790’s in the rue de la Huchette and, circa 1812, in the rue de la Calandre. Specializing in enamelled watch cases and clock dials, he is known for his great skill and attention to detail.