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Thématiques: Bisque

  • Schmit  -  Coteau
    Jean-Nicolas Schmit (?-circa 1820)
    Joseph Coteau (1740-1801)

    Rare Bisque Porcelain and Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    Pendule414-04_HD_WEB

    Dihl and Guérhard Manufactory, known as the Duke d’Angoulême’s Manufactory

    Jean-Nicolas Schmit

    The Dial by Joseph Coteau

    Paris, late Louis XVI period, circa 1785-1790

    Height55 Width58 Depth20

    Provenance:

    – Sold in Paris, Galerie Charpentier, Maître Rheims, June 8, 1955, lot 184

    – Sold in Paris, Hôtel Drouot, Maîtres Ader-Picard-Tajan, March 19, 1982, lot 31

     

    The round white enamel dial, which is signed “Schmit à Paris” and “Coteau” and bears the words “Manufre de Mgr le duc d’Angoulême”, indicates the Roman numeral hours, fifteen-minute Arabic numeral intervals and date, as well as the days of the week along with their corresponding astrological signs and the seconds, by means of five hands, two of which are made of pierced and gilt bronze. It is housed in a bisque porcelain case that imitates white Carrara marble and features decorative scenes in shades of gray on a pink ground. It is adorned with bronze mounts in the form of leaves that are finely chased and gilt with matte and burnished finishing, panels with stylized mermaids and friezes of alternating round and oval beads. The hour and half hour striking movement is housed in a case that depicts upon Eros, the god of Love, sitting among the clouds. In his right hand he is holding a stylus with which he has engraved a poem in a book that is held by a putto. The shaped quadrangular base with canted corners is adorned with reserves painted in shades of gray against a pink ground, which depict putti that are gardening and gathering flowers. The clock is raised upon four lion’s paw feet.

    This magnificent clock is an excellent illustration of the extraordinary creativity of the Parisian clockmakers of the second half of the 18th century. They created remarkably inventive pieces of unparalleled quality, juxtaposing the most luxurious and rare materials. It was made at the renowned Manufactory known as the Duke d’Angoulême’s Factory because as of 1781 it was headed by the Duke d’Angoulême, who later entrusted its direction to Christophe Erasimus Dihl and the Guérhards; under their guidance the factory became the principal rival of the Sèvres Manufactory during the final years of the 18th century and during the reign of Napoleon Bonaparte. After the fall of the monarchy, the manufactory created several new models, including unglazed groups and figures, which were particularly popular when they were mounted as “large clocks in fine bisque porcelain” (Dictionnaire universel de la géographie commerçante, Tome V, p. 325; cited in R. de Plinval de Guillebon, Les biscuits de porcelaine de Paris XVIIIe-XIXe siècles, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2012, p. 199). The clock’s remarkable and perfectly balanced composition was quite successful among important Parisian collectors of the time. Among the few identical models known, all seem to be signed by the clockmaker Schmit. Among them, one example with a base in shades of gray, which has an aperture with the indications of the age and phases of the moon, which was formerly in the collection of the Guinness family in Luttrelstown Castle near Dublin (sold Christie’s, September 26-28, 1983). A second clock was in the James de Rothschild collection in Waddesdon Manor near London.

    Jean-Nicolas Schmit (? - circa 1820)

    Jean-Nicolas Schmit is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the late 18th century and early 19th centuries. After becoming a master in August 1781, he opened a workshop in the rue Betizy and won immediate renown among connoisseurs. Dihl and Guérhard, the directors of the Duc d’Angoulême’s porcelain factory, were impressed by his movements and purchased the majority of their clock movements from him. Contemporary documents mention the clockmaker’s work as being in the collections of the greatest art enthusiasts of the period. Clocks by him are included in the probate inventory of Jean-Etienne-Marie de Portalis, made a conseiller d’état by Napoléon, and in that of the wife of Louis-Marie-Bretagne-Dominique de Rohan-Chabot, Duc de Rohan and cousin of King Louis XV.



    Joseph Coteau (1740 - 1801)

    The most renowned enameller of his time, he worked with most of the best contemporary Parisian clockmakers. He was born in Geneva, where he was named master painter-enameler of the Académie de Saint Luc in 1766. Several years later he settled in Paris, and from 1772 to the end of his life, he was recorded in the rue Poupée. Coteau is known for a technique of relief enamel painting, which he perfected along with Parpette and which was used for certain Sèvres porcelain pieces, as well as for the dials of very fine clocks. Among the pieces that feature this distinctive décor are a covered bowl and tray in the Sèvres Musée national de la Céramique (Inv. SCC2011-4-2); a pair of “cannelés à guirlandes” vases in the Louvre Museum in Paris (see the exhibition catalogue Un défi au goût, 50 ans de création à la manufacture royale de Sèvres (1740-1793), Musée du Louvre, Paris, 1997, p. 108, catalogue n° 61); and a ewer and the “Comtesse du Nord” tray and bowl in the Pavlovsk Palace in Saint Petersburg (see M. Brunet and T. Préaud, Sèvres, Des origines à nos jours, Office du Livre, Fribourg, 1978, p. 207, fig. 250). A blue Sèvres porcelain lyre clock by Courieult, whose dial is signed “Coteau” and is dated “1785”, is in the Musée national du château in Versailles; it appears to be identical to the example mentioned in the 1787 inventory of Louis XVI’s apartments in Versailles (see Y. Gay and A. Lemaire, “Les pendules lyre”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des collectionneurs et amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne, autumn 1993, n° 68, p. 32C).



    In the same category
    Schmit
    Jean-Nicolas Schmit (?-circa 1820)

    Rare Bisque Porcelain and Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The Two Naiads”

    Pendule397-04_BD_MAIL

    “Schmit à Paris”

    The Manufactory of Dihl et Guérhard, known as the “Manufactory of the Duke of Angoulême”

    Paris, late Louis XVI period, circa 1790

    Height41 Width44 Depth11.5

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Schmit à Paris”, indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. It is fitted in an imitation marble bisque porcelain case (Wedgwood bisque), in shades of gray on a yellow ground. The case is adorned with finely chased matte and burnished gilt bronze mounts including waterleaf friezes and friezes of alternating round and oval beads. The portion of the case in which the hour and half-hour striking movement is housed features a plaque with a blue ground in which a child is lying on a dolphin. Two beautiful allegorical figures of naiads in classical draperies are leaning on the case. They hold urns from which water is pouring out, symbolizing the passing of Time. The shaped quadrangular base, with rounded corners, is decorated with reserves painted in shades of gray on a yellow background, with elegant scrolls and baskets containing fruits, grape vines, snakes and other figures. The front panel is centered by a cartouche bearing the words “Manufre de MM Guerhard et Dihl a Paris”. The clock is raised upon eight knurled feet.

    This magnificent clock is an excellent example of the inventiveness shown by certain Parisian clockmakers of the second half of the 18th century, who created works of great originality and outstanding quality using the most precious and costly materials. The present clock was made by a well-known Manufactory that was known as the “Manufacture du duc d’Angoulême” ; in 1781 its patron, the Duke of Angoulême, entrusted the factory to two groups of partners: Christophe Erasimus Dihl and the husband and wife team of the Guérhards. Under their direction the company became the main rival of the Sèvres Manufactory during the final years of the 18th century and the early years of the nineteenth century, during the reign of Napoleon. After the fall of the monarchy the manufactory created many new models, including unglazed groups and figures, which were especially popular when mounted as “large clocks in beautiful bisque” (Dictionnaire universel de la géographie commerçante, Tome V, p. 325; cited in R. de Plinval de Guillebon, Les biscuits de porcelaine de Paris XVIIIe-XIXe siècles, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2012, p. 199).

    The unusual and beautifully balanced composition of the present model made it a great success among influential Parisian connoisseurs of the time. Among the small number of similar clocks, which often present variations in the decoration of the base, all are signed by the clockmaker Schmit. One example was offered at Christie’s London on May 14, 1970, lot 40. A second clock is illustrated in P. Heuer and K. Maurice, European Pendulum Clocks, Decorative Instruments of Measuring Time, Munich, 1988, p. 59, fig. 94. One further such clock, today in a private collection, is illustrated in R. de Plinval de Guillebon, op.cit., Editions Faton, Dijon, 2012, p. 196.

    Jean-Nicolas Schmit (? - circa 1820)

    Jean-Nicolas Schmit is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the late 18th century and early 19th centuries. After becoming a master in August 1781, he opened a workshop in the rue Betizy and won immediate renown among connoisseurs. Dihl and Guérhard, the directors of the Duc d’Angoulême’s porcelain factory, were impressed by his movements and purchased the majority of their clock movements from him. Contemporary documents mention the clockmaker’s work as being in the collections of the greatest art enthusiasts of the period. Clocks by him are included in the probate inventory of Jean-Etienne-Marie de Portalis, made a conseiller d’état by Napoléon, and in that of the wife of Louis-Marie-Bretagne-Dominique de Rohan-Chabot, Duc de Rohan and cousin of King Louis XV.



    Niderviller Manufactory
    Niderviller Manufactory

    Rare Porcelain, Bisque and Bronze Mantel Garniture Comprising a Clock and a Pair of Ornamental Vases

    APF_Pendule156_05

    Niderviller Manufactory, known as the Comte de Custine’s Manufactory

    Lorraine, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Pendule :
    Height37.5 Width20
    Vases :
    Height27

    The vase-shaped clock features two cercles tournants comprising two rows of white enamel cartouches, bearing the signature “Arnould à Nanci”, the signature of the Nancy clockmaker Nicolas Arnould. They indicate the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic five-minute intervals by means of a blued steel pointer. The movement is housed in a magnificent polychrome hard paste porcelain baluster vase, in the style of an antique vase, decorated with gold leaf garlands against a blue ground. On either side there is an oval medallion depicting a lake scene done in the manner of Claude Gelée (known as Le Lorrain). The bisque handles are in the form of female masks coiffed with flower wreaths. The belly of the vase is adorned with leaf and flower garlands; the cover is decorated with acanthus leaves, with a pinecone finial. The lower portion of the vase is embellished with delicate gadroons that are partially gilt. The spreading base is adorned with gadroons and a leaf frieze. The clock rests on a quadrangular base that is painted in imitation of fleur de pêcher marble. The elaborate, baluster shaped vases that complete the garniture feature an en suite décor.

    This exceptional mantel garniture stands out from among the rare comparable models known today. Indeed, the clock has retained its decorative side vases, which happens very rarely. Among the similar models known – all now lacking their matching vases – one example is illustrated in G. and A. Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises, de Louis XIV à l’Empire, Polistampa, Florence, 2013, p. 248. A second example with a white ground, signed “Garrigues à Marseille”, was formerly in the Hudelot and Le Tallec collections (illustrated in Tardy, Les plus belles pendules françaises, La pendule française dans le Monde, Paris, 1994, p. 93; see also P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Les éditions de l’Amateur, Paris, 1997, p. 301). A third example is illustrated in P. Heuer and K. Maurice, European Pendulum Clocks, Decorative Instruments of Measuring Time, Munich, 1988, p. 44, fig. 64, and a fourth example is in the Musée Sandelin in Saint-Omer (illustrated in A. Lemaire and M. Gay, “Les pendules à cercles tournants”, in Bulletin de l’Association nationale des collectionneurs et amateurs d’Horlogerie ancienne, spring 1994, n° 69, p. 20, fig. 26).

    One further similar clock that is nearly identical to the present example, comprising a clock made by Nicolas Arnould père in Nancy, with its matching mantel garniture, is in the Musée Nissim de Camondo in Paris (see B. Rondot and X. Salmon, Musée Nissim de Camondo, Catalogue des collections, RMN, Paris, 1998, p. 22, catalogue n°100).

    Niderviller Manufactory

    Originally a faience factory, founded in 1735. On September 4, 1748, Jean-Louis Beyerlé, then the director of the Strasburg mint, purchased the manufacture for 90.000 livres. He quickly expanded production by hiring François-Antoine Anstett, who had been trained at the Meissen Factory. Approximately two decades later, Jean-Louis Beyerlé, who had infringed on the royal privilege for the production of hard-paste porcelain that had been granted to the Royal Sèvres Manufacture, sold the factory to Adam-Philippe, Count de Custine, who diversified production by purchasing the majority of Paul-Louis Cyfflé’s molds and by hiring the promising sculptor Charles-Gabriel Sauvage (known as Lemire, 1741-1827). When the Revolution broke out, the Count de Custine was condemned, and the Niderviller pottery factory was confiscated, becoming the property of the nation.



    In the same category
    Duke d’Angoulême’s Factory

    Rare Paris Bisque Porcelain and Matte and Burnished Gilt Mantel Clock

    Cupid Shooting his Arrow

    Pendule_218-05_HD_WEB

    Dihl and Guérhard Porcelain Factory, known as the Duke d’Angoulême’s Factory

    Paris, late Louis XVI period, circa 1790

    Height50 Width31.5 Depth18.8

    The round white enamel dial indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands. The hour and half-hour striking movement is housed in a magnificent gilt bronze and Paris bisque porcelain case. The clock is surmounted by an allegorical figure representing Cupid among clouds, kneeling on a plinth with canted corners, with one knee on the ground and his quiver with arrows at his feet. He is about to shoot an arrow. The group rests upon an architectural case that is decorated with canaux, with protruding corners and tapering side columns decorated with piasters, leaf garlands, and laurel leaf seeds that terminate in lion’s paw feet. The case rests on a quadrangular base with reserves framed by bead friezes, and is supported on four leaf and seed-wrapped ball feet. The clock is elaborately decorated with motifs painted in shades of gray, against yellow grounds or framed by spandrels, bead friezes, and panels with leaf frames, with weapon or musical trophies and valences supporting vases with flowers and fowl. The three sides are decorated with floral and foliate motifs, and the façade features a shell inscribed: “Mre Guerhard et Dihl a Paris”.

    This magnificent clock is an example of the extraordinary creativity of the Parisian clockmakers of the last decades of the 18th century, who were able to create extremely original work of exceptional quality, using the most luxurious and precious materials. The sculptural treatment of the Cupid figure, the subtlety and elegance of the painted motifs, and the exceptional gilding and chasing of the bronze mounts, are characteristic of the esthetic and technical perfection achieved by the great Parisian artisans of the late Louis XVI period. It was produced by the celebrated factory of the Duke d’Angoulême, which was named for the aristocrat who became its protector as of 1781. The Duke entrusted the factory’s running to Christophe Erasmus Dihl and Antoine Guérhard and his wife, Louise Françoise Madeleine Croizé. Under their direction the factory became the main rival of the Sèvres porcelain factory during the final years of the 18th century and during the reign of Napoleon I. After the fall of the monarchy the factory created new models, including unglazed groups or figures. These were especially popular when mounted as “large clocks made of fine bisque porcelain” (Dictionnaire universel de la géographie commerçante, Tome V, p. 325, cited by R. de Plinval de Guillebon, Les biscuits de porcelaine de Paris XVIIIe-XIXe siècles, Editions Faton, Dijon, 2012, p. 199).

    The present clock is exceptional due to its very rare design. Among the rare identical examples known, one clock, whose dial is signed “Jacob à Paris”, was sold at auction in Paris by Me Couturier-Nicolay, on April 26, 1989, lot 48 (illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age à nos jours, Paris, 1997, p. 341, fig. A). A second, formerly in the Berthe Fontana collection, was sold in Paris, Hôtel Drouot, Me Lair-Dubreuil, March 15, 1922, lot 56.

    Revel
    Joseph-Marie Revel (?-1811)

    Rare Sphinx Mantle Clock

    APF14_Pendulerie_0051

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Height52.5 Width32.5 Depth15

    The enamel dial, with Arabic hours and minutes, is contained within a drum-shaped gilt bronze case adorned with ormolu flower garlands and a ribbon bow; at its summit there is a finely chased ormolu plume. On either side of the dial, two winged sphinxes coiffed with nemes headdresses support entablatures decorated with enamel plaques, which are surmounted by topiary vases. The base, with rounded white marble sides that are finely painted with polychrome arabesque motifs, has a central paste-decorated verre églomisé plaque centred by a blue imitation Wedgwood bisque medallion with a low-relief depiction of the three Graces. Stylised gilt bronze friezes provide highlights; the base is of black marble.

    This clock’s elegant design places it among the most remarkable animal-themed clocks made during the last quarter of the 18th century in Paris. The rare known similar examples feature the same combination of rare and precious materials. One example was formerly in the collection of the Radziwill Princes, in the Château d’Ermenonville (sold in Paris by Me Ader on March 8, 1933, lot 31); a second piece, with dial signed Lechopié à Paris, was formerly in the collection of Mrs. Thelma Chrysler Foy (Parke-Bernet Galleries, New York, May 15 and 16, 1959, lot 295); a third is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Paris, 1997, p. 281; one last example, whose dial is signed F.L. Godon, is in the Spanish Royal Collections (illustrated in J. Ramon Colon de Carvajal, Catalogo de Relojes del Patrimonio Nacional, Madrid, 1987, p. 77, catalogue n° 61).

    Joseph-Marie Revel (? - 1811)

    Very little is known about this clockmaker, who was nevertheless very famous during his lifetime. Briefly mentioned in the Tardy’s Dictionnaire des horlogers under the name of Joseph Revel, he was actually named Joseph-Marie; he died in Paris in 1811. After becoming a master on August 12, 1775, he opened a workshop in the Vieille rue du Temple, and was mentioned in the Palais Royal from 1787 to 1790, in the Palais Egalité around 1800, and in the Palais Tribunat from 1804 to 1806. Several probate inventories dating from the early decades of the 19th century mention a number of his clocks; a clock by Revel was estimated in 1817 after the death of Adélaïde de Lespinasse-Langeac, the wife of the chevalier de Costalin; in 1821 another was in the collection of the Countess de Medem, Anne-Charlotte-Dorothée, the widow of the powerful Duke de Courlande.