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Époques: Louis XVI

  • Thomire  -  Hauré
    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757-1843)
    Jean Hauré

    Exceptional Pair of Monumental Three-Branch Quiver-Form Wall Lights in Two-Tone Gilt Bronze with Matte and Burnished Finishing

    “Model from Marie-Antoinette’s Salon des jeux in the Château Royal at Compiègne”

    Appliques018-03_BD_MAIL

    Attributed to Pierre-Philippe Thomire and to Jean Hauré

    Paris, late 18th century, circa 1790-1800

    Height80 cm Width60 cm

    The present wall lights are made of finely chased gilt bronze with matte and burnished finishing, in two shades of gold. Each wall light features a particularly elaborate composition, presenting an arrow-filled quiver with a fluted body that is decorated with a knop with interlacing motifs centered by seeds, and whose lower portion terminates in a seed finial emerging from leaves, which is surmounted by a bouquet of alternating stylized leaves and stems. The stem of the wall light issues the three curving and be-ribboned light branches, whose spirally fluted and leaf-decorated stems terminate in rosettes. On either side, ribbon-tied garlands of flowers and foliage are suspended from a central sunflower in the upper portion of the quiver. The light branches have a reeded stem that is surmounted by bouquets of leaves to which are  fixed a conical element with spiral fluting that supports the round basin whose undersides are adorned with friezes of interlacing patterns and beads, and whose circumferences are decorated with bead friezes and gadrooning. The finely chased nozzle is surmounted by a drip pan decorated with a frieze of beads.

    The lavish design of the present spectacular pair of monumental wall lights is based on a model that was created for Marie-Antoinette’s Salon de Jeux in the Château de Compiègne. In 1787 the Parisian bronze caster Jean Hauré delivered six wall lights of the present model to the queen. The preliminary models, in wax and wood, were executed by Jean Martin; they were then cast by Etienne-Jean or Pierre-Auguste Forestier. Lastly, the chasing and mounting of the wall lights were done by Pierre-Philippe Thomire.

    Of these three pairs, two bearing the crowned CP mark, are still in the collection of the Château de Compiègne (see the exhibition catalogue Louis XVI et Marie-Antoinette à Compiègne, Musée National du Château de Compiègne, 2006-2007, RMN, Paris p. 188-189, catalogue n° 34). The third example is today part of the Rothschild collection in Waddesdon Manor. The initial model, identified by Pierre Verlet, which was used to cast all the others, and which cost the substantial sum of 1,000 livres, was deposited in the Garde-Meuble at the time of the Revolution, probably for the purpose of casing further examples. It was no doubt this initial model that was used to produce the two pairs that are today on display in the Wallace Collection in London (illustrated in H. Jacobsen, Gilded Interiors, Parisian Luxury & the Antique, London, 2017, p. 102-104), as well as the present pair of wall lights.

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire (1757 - 1843)

    Pierre-Philippe Thomire was the most important Parisian bronzier of the last quarter of the 18th century and the first decades of the following century. Early on in his career he worked for Pierre Gouthière, ciseleur-fondeur du roi, and toward the mid-1770’s began working with Louis Prieur. He later became one of the bronziers attached to the Manufacture Royale de Sèvres, creating the bronze mounts for most of the important creations of the day. After the Revolution, he purchased the stock of Martin-Eloi Lignereux, thus becoming the most important suppliers of furniture bronzes for châteaux and Imperial Palaces. In addition, he worked for a wealthy private clientele, both French and foreign, including several of Napoleon’s Marshals. Thomire retired in 1823.



    Jean Hauré

    A Parisian bronze caster who was active from 1774 to 1796.



    In the same category
    Rémond
    François Rémond (circa 1747-1812)

    Rare Mantle Clock in White Carrara Marble, Wedgwood Porcelain, and Gilt Bronze with Matte and Burnished Finishing

    Pendule432-04_BD_MAIL

    Attributed to François Rémond

    Paris, late Louis XVI period, circa 1790-1795

    Height51.5 cm Width40 cm Depth14.5 cm

    The white enamel annular dial, adorned with gilt flowers that are linked by blue scallops, indicates the Roman numeral hours and the Arabic numeral fifteen-minute intervals, as well as the date with Revolutionary months,  by means of three hands, two of which are made of pierced and gilt bronze. The movement is housed in a case of white Carrara marble, with a Wedgwood bisque porcelain medallion, and finely chased gilt bronze with matte and burnished finishing. The skeleton movement, housed in an octagonal case that is surmounted by a ribbon-tied rose wreath with a bow and arrow, which rests on an athénienne tripod decorated with rams’ heads from which chains are suspended; its legs terminate in goat hooves. To either side are two long trumpets that are attached to rosettes and around which snakes are entwined; they are surmounted by bouquets of flowers and leaves. Suspended garlands terminating in tassels adorn the case as well.  The two trumpets are held by a winged putto and a young boy who is dressed in a loincloth with bells. Two flower and leaf wreaths lie on the terrace. The shaped octagonal base is decorated with a frieze of alternating seeds and waterleaves, and its sides are adorned with mille-raie panels. On the façade, two plaques with pierced arabesques feature niches with female busts; they flank, on either side, a central oblong panel that is adorned with ribbon-tied laurel branches framing a bisque porcelain medallion with white reliefs against a blue ground, that probably depicts Thetis plunging Achilles into the River Styx. The clock stands upon six flattened feet.

    This rare and remarkable clock, featuring chasing and gilding of exceptional quality, may confidently be attributed to François Rémond, the most talented Parisian chaser-gilder active during the final decades of the 18th century and the early years of the following century. Its theme is also particularly remarkable, as is the use of a Wedgwood bisque porcelain medallion that suggests the involvement of one of the contemporary Parisian marchands-merciers such as Dominique Daguerre, who would have had all the commercial contacts necessary to create a clock of such extraordinary quality as this one.

    François Rémond (circa 1747 - 1812)

    Along with Pierre Gouthière, he was one of the most important Parisian chaser-gilders of the last third of the 18th century. He began his apprenticeship in 1763 and became a master chaser-gilder in 1774. His great talent quickly won him a wealthy clientele, including certain members of the Court. Through the marchand-mercier Dominique Daguerre, François Rémond was involved in furnishing the homes of most of the important collectors of the late 18th century, supplying them with exceptional clock cases, firedogs, and candelabra. These elegant and innovative pieces greatly contributed to his fame.



    Waltrin
    Louis Waltrin (1749-after 1820)

    Rare White Marble and Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The Flight of the Montgolfier Brothers”

    Pendule_464-04_BD_MAIL

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Height49 cm Width31 cm Depth17 cm

    The enamel dial, signed Louis Waltrin à Paris, indicates the hours in Roman numerals and the minutes in Arabic numerals. The oval-shaped white marble case is modelled as a balloon, highlighted by ormolu beading and cords. The two Montgolfier brothers, modelled in chased and gilt bronze, are standing in the white marble gondola. Two fluted columns with ormolu decorations on either side feature moulded bases and chapters; they are surmounted by vases holding flower bouquets. The clock itself is surmounted by a flat vase adorned with beading, from which emerge flowers and leaves. The moulded oval white marble base is surmounted by a pierced frieze of geometric motifs; it is raised upon six toupie feet.

    In June 1783, Joseph and Jacques-Etienne Montgolfier made their first flight in a hot-air balloon, observed by a huge crowd. They repeated this exploit several months later before Louis XVI and Marie-Antoinette. This extraordinary invention immediately captured the imaginations of artists and artisans of the day, especially Parisian clockmakers. Within just a few years, several variations of “Montgolfière” clocks were produced, some without the figures of the two famous balloon pilots. Several examples of the latter type are known; they include one example in the Musée François Duesberg in Mons (illustrated in Musée François Duesberg, Arts décoratifs 1775-1825, Bruxelles, 2004, p. 21), and a second example that is illustrated in E. Niehüser, Die französische Bronzeuhr, Munich, 1997, p. 256, fig. 1160.

    The present example features the two Montgolfier brothers in the gondola. Among the rare similar clocks known to exist, one example with a skeleton dial is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la Pendule française, Paris, 1997, p. 208, fig. A; a clock nearly identical to the present one, with dial signed Léchopié, is in the Budapest Museum of Decorative Arts; it is illustrated in Pierre Verlet, Les bronzes dorés français du XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1999, p. 121, fig. 156.

    Louis Waltrin (1749 - after 1820)

    Louis Waltrin is the son of clockmaker Joseph Waltrin (circa 1720-1789), Louis-René Waltrin probably learned the art of clockmaking in his father’s workshop in the rue Saint-Antoine. He acquired his “lettres de maîtrise” as a master’s son on September 24, 1771. He quickly gained renown among the important Parisian collectors of the day, taking over his father’s business in the mid 1780’s. Several probate inventories of the late 18th and the early 19th centuries mention his work, particularly that of the wife of Jean-Baptiste-Hubert Lemarcis, and that of Antoine-François Boula de Montgodefroy, senior member of Parliament. After 1815, and the Bourbon Restoration, Louis-René Waltrin continued his brilliant career, being named Clockmaker to the Duke of Bordeaux.



    In the same category
    Kinable  -  Dubuisson
    Dieudonné Kinable (active circa 1790-1810)
    Dubuisson (1731-1815)

    Exceptional Porcelain Lyre Mantel Clock from the Royal Sèvres Porcelain Manufactory

    Pendule_456-06_HD_WEB

    Paris, late Louis XVI period, circa 1785-1790

    Height62 cm Width26 cm Depth16 cm

    Provenance:

    Former collection of Valentina Cortese (1923-2019).

     

    The round enamel dial, signed “Kinable”, indicates the hours in Roman numerals, the fifteen-minute intervals in Arabic numerals, the annual calendar and the signs of the Zodiac, by means of four hands, two of which are made of pierced gilt bronze, the two others in blued steel. The magnificent lyre-shaped case is made of pink Sèvres porcelain and finely chased and gilt bronze. The bezel is made up of a gilt bronze twisted rope; the pendulum is adorned with gilt bronze pearls; the body of the lyre is adorned with gilt bronze beading and with laurel leaf and seed motifs, with two rosettes issuing floral and foliate swags. The clock is surmounted by a mask with radiating sunrays. The spreading foot is decorated with beading and twisted rope motifs and a leafy garland. The en-suite decorated oval base is raised upon four flattened ball feet.

    The Royal Sèvres Porcelain Factory produced the lyre clock model as of 1785. Four colours were offered: turquoise, green, bleu nouveau and pink. These exceptional clocks were made for the connoisseurs of the time. Louis XVI had a similar clock in bleu nouveau colour in his Salon des jeux in Versailles; its dial bore the signature of the clockmaker Courieult (this is almost certainly the example illustrated in P. Verlet, Les bronzes dorés français du XVIIIe siècle, Paris, 1999, p. 41).

     

    Kinable, however, was the clockmaker who purchased the greatest number of lyre cases from the factory, and he developed the model in the late 18th century. Among the porcelain lyre clocks signed by this brilliant horologer, one example is in the Victoria & Albert Museum in London (illustrated in H. Ottomeyer and P. Pröschel, Vergoldete Bronzen, Band I, Munich, 1986, p. 252, fig. 4.6.26). A second such clock is in the Royal British Collection (see C. Jagger, Royal Clocks, The British Monarchy & its Timekeepers 1300-1900, 1983, p. 130, fig. 176).

     

    Dieudonné Kinable (active circa 1790 - 1810)

    Dieudonné Kinable is one of the most important Parisian clockmakers of the late 18th century. His shop was located at n° 131 Palais Royal. He purchased a great number of lyre-type porcelain clock cases from the Sèvres porcelain factory, acquiring twenty-one cases in different colours. He worked with the finest artisans of the time, among them the famous enamellers Joseph Coteau (1740-1801) and Etienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson (1731-1815), both of whom furnished him with dials. Several of his pieces are mentioned as belonging to the most important collectors of the Empire period, including the Duchesse of Fitz-James and André Masséna, Prince of Essling and Duke of Rivoli, a Napoleonic Marshall.



    Dubuisson (1731 - 1815)

    Étienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson, was one of the best enamellers working in Paris during the latter part of the 18th century and the early 19th century. During the mid 1750’s he was employed at Sèvres, then opened his own workshop, being recorded in the 1790’s in the rue de la Huchette and, circa 1812, in the rue de la Calandre. Specializing in enamelled watch cases and clock dials, he is known for his great skill and attention to detail.



    Rémond
    François Rémond (circa 1747-1812)

    Rare Pair of Matte and Burnished Gilt Bronze Baluster-Form Candlesticks

    Bougeoirs006-X02_HD_WEB

    Attributed to François Rémond

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Height27.5 cm Diamètre14.3 cm

    Provenance:

    – Formerly in the collection of the princes of Beauvau-Craon.

     

    The candlesticks, made of very finely chased bronze with matte and gilt finishing, feature a baluster stem emerging from a leaf and flower bouquet; it is adorned with spiral fluting and festoons of beads suspended from roundels. The stem supports a nozzle decorated with a band of olive branches; the drip pan is embellished with a cord frieze. The base of the stem has a gadrooned knop and rests on a bell-shaped foot decorated with acanthus leaves and seeded stems set against a matted ground. The foot is, in turn, supported by a round plinth with bead and olive branch friezes framed between plain bands.

    The unique design of this pair of large candlesticks makes it one of the most elaborate lighting instruments of the Louis XVI period. The motifs and decorative elements are quite similar to ornamental motifs – including balusters, bead friezes and festoons, and acanthus leaves – which appear on an armchair made by the furniture maker Jean-Baptiste-Claude Séné. Delivered in 1787, to be placed in the Grand Cabinet of Queen Marie-Antoinette in the Château of Saint-Cloud, it is today in the Louvre Museum (see Bill G.B. Pallot, Le mobilier du Musée du Louvre, Tome 2, Editions Faton, Dijon, 1993, p. 163, catalogue n° 57). The exceptional quality of the chasing and gilding suggests the present pair of candlesticks was made by one of the finest chaser-gilders of the period: François Rémond, a Parisian artisan who worked exclusively for Dominique Daguerre, the most important dealer in luxury objects of the period.

     

    Today only a very few identical candlesticks are known to exist. Among them, one pair was in the Dillée collection (sold Sotheby’s, Paris, Galerie Charpentier, March 18-19, 2015, lot 74). A second pair was offered at auction by Sotheby’s New York on October 22, 1965, lot 211. One further comparable pair of candlesticks was formerly in the collection of Sigismond Bardac (sold Paris, Galerie Georges Petit, Me Lair-Dubreuil, May 10-11, 1920, lot 72).

    François Rémond (circa 1747 - 1812)

    Along with Pierre Gouthière, he was one of the most important Parisian chaser-gilders of the last third of the 18th century. He began his apprenticeship in 1763 and became a master chaser-gilder in 1774. His great talent quickly won him a wealthy clientele, including certain members of the Court. Through the marchand-mercier Dominique Daguerre, François Rémond was involved in furnishing the homes of most of the important collectors of the late 18th century, supplying them with exceptional clock cases, firedogs, and candelabra. These elegant and innovative pieces greatly contributed to his fame.



    Gavelle
    Pierre Gavelle (1753-1802)

    Exceptional Monumental Clock in Gilt and Patinated Bronze

    Pendule442-03_HD_WEB

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1775-1785

    Height90 cm Width46 cm Depth29 cm

    Provenance:

    -Sold Paris, collection of Mademoiselle X…, Maître Lair-Dubreuil, Hôtel Drouot, March 3-7, 1913, lot 367.

    -Collection of Mr. Antonio de Sommer Champalimaud (1918-2004), Lisbon.

     

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Gavelle l’aîné à Paris”, indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced and gilt hands; it also has a central seconds hand. The dial bears the signature of the enameller Edmé Portail Barbichon, one of the main rivals of enamellers Joseph Coteau and Dubuisson. The hour and half-hour striking movement is housed in a round case that is adorned with bead friezes and a tied drapery. It is supported by a very fine, lightly draped putto that is depicted in a contrapposto pose inspired by Renaissance Florence; at his feet lie two books. Opposite the putto there is a fluted column whose base is decorated with a ribbon-tied laurel torus and whose chapter is adorned with an egg and dart frieze. It supports a globe among clouds; at the base of the column there are a parchment, a square and a compass. The shaped and molded base is adorned with friezes of laurel leaves and seeds; the façade bears a central panel in the manner of Clodion, depicting children at play. The clocks stands on six flattened ball feet with a matted band.

    The present monumental clock was no doubt specially ordered by an influential Parisian collector during the early years of the reign of Louis XVI. It was clearly made by one of the finest bronze casters of the time, such as the Osmonds or Jean-Joseph de Saint-Germain. The magnificent  putto figure is reminiscent of the work of sculptor François Duquesnoy, known as François Flamand, who produced this type of model throughout his career. To the best of our knowledge the present clock is the only known example of this model, which supports the hypothesis that the clock was a one-of-a-kind piece that was made to order. During the 18th century, the process of commissioning a piece was complex and entailed the production of sketches, plans, and preparatory models in plaster or terra cotta, to ensure a bronze sculpture of the highest quality.

    Pierre Gavelle (1753 - 1802)

    The clockmaker Pierre Gavelle (who signed “Gavelle l’aîné”), was the son of Jean-Jacques Gavelle and the brother of Maurice-Jacques Gavelle, also clockmakers in Paris. All three were active in Paris during the second half of the 18th century. After becoming a master, on September 4, 1771, he worked in his father’s workshop until 1787, then opened a workshop in rue Saint-Denis, moving to the rue des Juifs in 1801 (see Tardy, Dictionnaire des horlogers français, Paris, 1971, p. 251). A deputy of the guild in 1785, he became rather well-known and several of his clocks were mentioned during the early decades of the 19th century, as belonging to Parisian collectors of the day, including the printer Jacques Delatynna and Alexandre-Pierre-Louis Deherain, Counsellor to the Paris Appellate Court.



    In the same category
    Dubuisson
    Dubuisson (1731-1815)

    Rare Gilt Bronze Mantel Clock

    “The Kiss”

    signature 2

    Enamelled dial by Etienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson

    After a model by Jean-Antoine Houdon

    Paris, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Height46 cm Width26 cm Depth15 cm

    The round enamel dial, signed “Dubuisson”, indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two pierced gilt bronze hands, as well as the date by means of a steel hand. The gilt bronze neoclassical case is very finely chased. The dial is framed by chased foliate spandrels.  The case, in the form of an antique milestone, is flanked by two magnificent mermaids who support the entablature, which is adorned with egg and dart friezes, beading, and stylised leaves. On it stands the sculpture “The Kiss”. It stands on a pedestal, around which are four doves and two flaming tripod incense burners, which are decorated with spiral fluting and the heads of lions holding chains in their mouths. The plinth is adorned with beading and a frieze of stylised flowers. It is set upon a rectangular base with rounded corners, which features interlace leaf friezes and is raised upon six finely chased toupie feet.

    This rare model is mentioned in several 18th century documents. One clock, probably identical to the present model, was offered at the sale of the collection of a certain Monsieur Tricot in 1793: “N°211. A clock that strikes the hours and half hours, with date, by Bourret; It is set on a high square base and is surmounted by an elaborate pediment decorated with egg and dart motifs, supported by two naiad caryatids with fish tails; the stepped base is adorned with water leaves and interlace motifs, the white marble base is raised upon ball feet. The upper portion of the clock represents Mark Anthony and Cleopatra kissing, after Houdon. The sculpture is set upon a column, with four doves, and on either side a cassolette. This magnificently executed clock is finely matte gilded; with a glass dome. Height 17 pouces, width 10 pouces”. Today only a few identical clocks are known.

    Among them, one example with a red griotte marble base, whose dial is signed “Robin à Paris”, was formerly in the Fabius Frères collection (illustrated in Tardy, La pendule française, 2ème partie: Du Louis XVI à nos jours, Paris, 1975, p. 255). A second example, whose dial is signed “Bourret à Paris”, is illustrated in Giacomo and Aurélie Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises, de Louis XIV à l’Empire, Editions Polistampa, Florence, 2013, p. 245. A third clock, also signed Bourret, was in the Jean Gismondi Gallery in Paris (illustrated in J-D. Augarde, Les ouvriers du Temps, Genève, 1996, p. 286, fig. 219). One further such clock, with patinated mermaids, is in the Hermitage Museum in  Saint Petersburg.

    Dubuisson (1731 - 1815)

    Étienne Gobin, known as Dubuisson, was one of the best enamellers working in Paris during the latter part of the 18th century and the early 19th century. During the mid 1750’s he was employed at Sèvres, then opened his own workshop, being recorded in the 1790’s in the rue de la Huchette and, circa 1812, in the rue de la Calandre. Specializing in enamelled watch cases and clock dials, he is known for his great skill and attention to detail.



    Robert & Courvoisier
    Robert & Courvoisier

    Rare Gilt Bronze Pendule d’Officier

    Pendule_448-02_BD_MAIL

    Attributed to the Robert & Courvoisier firm

    Switzerland, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Louis XVI period, circa 1785

    Height19 cm Width12.5 cm Depth8 cm

    Bibliography:

    Chapuis, “Une maison chaux-de-fonnière: les Robert et les Courvoisier (1710-1830)”, in Pendules neuchâteloises, Documents nouveaux, Editions Slatkine, Geneva, 1987.

     

    The round white enamel dial, signed “Robert & Courvoisier”, indicates the Arabic numeral hours and fifteen-minute intervals by means of two hands in pierced bronze; it also has a blued steel alarm hand. The movement, with a 48-hour power reserve, strikes the hours, half hours, and quarter hours. It is housed in a finely chased gilt bronze neoclassic case. The bezel is adorned with a mille-raie frieze; the handle at the top of the clock takes the form of a snake biting its tail; this is the “Ouroboros”, a symbol of the infinite nature of Time. The handle is set on a bouquet of leaves and rests on an entablature that is adorned with a bead frieze. The concave sides are decorated with oak leaf and acorn garlands; the lower spandrels on the façade are embellished with foliage. The sides are decorated with large, leafy, seeded rosettes and reserves with stylized motifs set against matted grounds. The door on the back is pierced with a lattice pattern centered by cabochons. The clock is raised upon four flattened feet.

    Today only a small number of identical clocks are known. Among them, one example was offered at auction at Christie’s London on December 4, 1969, lot 29. A second clock, whose dial is unsigned, is illustrated in G. and A. Wannenes, Les plus belles pendules françaises, De Louis XIV à l’Empire, Editions Polistampa, Florence, 2013, p. 183. A third example, formerly in the collection of Count Lamberti, is illustrated in Tardy, La pendule française dans le Monde, Paris, 6th edition, 1994, p. 121. One further similar clock, whose dial is signed  “Dubois et Fils”, is illustrated in P. Kjellberg, Encyclopédie de la pendule française du Moyen Age au XXe siècle, Les éditions de l’Amateur, Paris, 1997, p. 174, figure B.

    Robert & Courvoisier

    Robert & Courvoisier is one of the best-known Swiss horological firms of the final years of the 18th century and the early years of the following century. It was born of the association of two horological families, the Roberts and the Courvoisiers. Josué Robert (1691-1771) established the family workshop in La Chaux-de-Fonds around 1715 and received the title of Clockmaker to the King in 1725. Having close family ties to the Jaquet-Droz and Sandoz families, he became famous for his inventions and numerous horological innovations, which helped make La Chaux-de-Fonds a very active clockmaking center. One of his sons, Louis-Benjamin Robert (1732-1781), worked in his father’s workshop and became its director after the death of his father in 1771; the company was called “J. Robert et fils”. In 1781, after the death of Louis-Benjamin, his son Aimé Robert (1758-1834) succeeded him and almost immediately (on April 30, 1781) went into partnership with Louis Courvoisier (1758-1832), the son of a Neuchâtel engraver, under the name “J. Robert et fils et Cie”. Aimé Robert was in charge of sales, seeking out commercial opportunities for their work throughout Europe. Louis Courvoisier was in charge of running the workshop and supervising production. In 1791, an inventory of the workshop mentioned hundreds of clocks, numerous employees, artisans and workmen, and highlighted the firm’s important commercial ties with Switzerland, France, Germany, Italy, and in many other European countries. At the time the company was known as “J. Robert et fils, Courvoisier & Cie”. The Napoleonic wars and political instability of the early years of the 19th century created great difficulties for the firm; the workshop decreased its production and concentrated its efforts on very high quality pieces that were destined for exportation. At the time the firm, then called “Robert Courvoisier & Cie”, dominated horological production, which was much decreased. In 1811, after Aimé Robert had retired, the company was known as “Courvoisier & Cie”. It remained active for nearly two more decades.



    In the same category